The health of the digestive system depends largely on the condition of the teeth. This statement is also true for pets. Many dental diseases begin with the process of dental calculus. Because of this, the caring owner must monitor the cleanliness of the dog’s teeth and know how to safely and effectively remove plaque on its own.
- Состав и структура камней 1. Composition and structure of stones
- Причины образования зубного камня у собак 2. Causes of tartar formation in dogs
- Лечение в домашних условиях 3. Home treatment
- Терапевтические мероприятия в клинике 4. Therapeutic activities in the clinic
- Профилактические меры 5. Preventive measures
The composition and structure of stones
Dental calculus in dogs is the deposition of a complex composition formed by minerals that are part of the bone tissue (calcium, phosphorus), iron, food debris that served as epithelial cells, bacteria, and their metabolic products. Unlike human (pH = 6.5-7.5), the pH of a dog's saliva is strongly alkaline (pH = 9), which reduces the risk of caries, but contributes to enhanced formation of dental deposits.
Dental calculus differs in consistency and color. In the initial stage, a loose coating is formed, consisting of food debris, mucus and bacteria. Plaque or dental plaque whitish-yellow color is easily removed from the enamel. In places where the accumulation of plaque is not removed in a natural way when chewing, the deposition of tartar occurs. Dental plaques are compacted, impregnated with mineral components, and a stone formation is formed. The porous surface of the deposits absorbs the coloring matter, so the tartar turns yellow, becomes brown, and then dark, almost black.
The formation of stones on the teeth begins with the place of least mechanical friction - near the edge, near the exit of the salivary glands. Microorganisms appear in the deposit, which in the course of their vital activity produce insoluble mineral compounds that contribute to the hardening of tartar. In order to form a stone, it is enough from 3 months. up to six months. Therefore, veterinarians are advised to inspect the teeth every six months.
Dental calculus is formed on the neck of the teeth, can be localized on the root or capture part of the crown of the tooth. Depending on the location, there are two types of tartar:
- supragingival - is formed above the upper edge of the gums. It is clearly visible to the naked eye, easily removed from the enamel;
- subgingival forms below the edge of the gum - between the root and the wall of the alveoli. It is more “dense” in consistency and much darker in color than the supragingival. This type of stone is difficult to remove with ordinary dental tools.
Many factors affect the formation of dense rock-like deposits. According to statistics, small breeds of dogs are most susceptible to stone formation.
You need to know how to brush your dog's teeth so that there is no tartar .
Causes of tartar formation in dogs
In a dog, the causes of stone formation are as follows:
- improper nutrition : the predominance of food that does not have an abrasive effect on the teeth (soft); sweets and sugar in the dog's diet;
- disruption of the metabolic process, first of all, the water-salt balance;
- diseases of the gums or teeth;
- abnormal development of the dentition or the structure of the jaw;
- insufficient hygiene procedures;
- individual structural features of the dental crown (microcracks and enamel roughness), etc.
In pets, the process of stone formation does not threaten life, but its presence damages the teeth, affects the state of the digestive system, causes inflammation of the gums. In addition, the tartar spoils the aesthetic perception, causes an unpleasant smell, can cause chronic body toxicity.
Bacterial microflora, rapidly developing in dental plaque, releases toxins that can cause gastritis, ulcers, and hepatopathies. Permanent effects on the body of pathogenic microorganisms reduces the level of immunity. Therefore, when detecting tartar in your pet, you must always contact a veterinarian or try to remove the deposits yourself.
It is not always possible to get professional help. If the dog has tartar, but there is no opportunity to contact the veterinary clinic, you can try to cope with the problem yourself. Veterinary pharmacies and pet stores have special brushes, toothpastes and powders with which you can remove plaque. In pet stores and the Internet, you can buy ready-made kits for dogs, for example:
- "8 in 1" DDS Canine Dental Kit;
- Oral Hygiene Kit;
- Hartz Brush'n Clean Dental.
In addition to special brushes and pastes, it is recommended to use the so-called "liquid toothbrushes":
- Dental Fresh;
- Beaphar Fresh Breath Spray;
- Espree Dental Gel with crystals;
- Nutri-Vet "Breath Fresh".
These oral hygiene products in dogs are used when the animal refuses to brush their teeth. To clean the teeth of dogs, you can use a paste made from baby tooth powder and a 3% peroxide solution.
To clean the surface of the teeth of pets, you can use special tools for removing stones - Xident Elixir and its analogues. The elixir does not only dissolve the stones, but also prevents the formation of new deposits. It is recommended once a week to apply Xident to the dog’s teeth by means of a cotton swab or tampon soaked in the product.
Elexin is not toxic, so it does not need to be washed off. After the tampon or fleece was held on the teeth for 2-3 minutes, they should be wiped with a dry cloth to remove the remains of the stone. Elixir has anti-inflammatory and disinfecting ingredients.
If you cannot remove the stone chemically, you can try to clean the coating with a special dental instrument - a scaler or a metal object without a cutting edge, so as not to injure the pet's gums. Scaler - metal hook with a rounded end, mounted on the handle. But any plate can come up, which is convenient to clean the stone and can not injure the gum or damage the enamel.
When mechanically cleaning the head of the animal must be securely fixed. Move the lip, put the scaler below the gum to the crown of the tooth. Clean up the sediment with the sure movement of the scaler. If the tartar does not give in, it is necessary to soften it beforehand by the president. It is necessary to carefully remove the stone, not only from the front surface of the crown, but also between the teeth. After cleansing, the gums are wiped with a disc moistened with a hydrogen peroxide solution to reduce bleeding and disinfection. The gums are treated with a solution of Lugol, which burns small wounds and abrasions.
Not every dog owner can independently carry out the procedure. In the initial stage, when the deposits are still loose, adhesive tablets can be used for cleaning. In the event that the owner failed to clean the dog's teeth on his own, he should contact the veterinary clinic. It is impossible to remove the stones that were formed under the gum of the dog. In this case, only a vet will help.
See also: treatment of stomatitis in dogs .
Therapeutic activities in the clinic
It is better to entrust rough bedding of a stone to a professional. In the veterinary clinic, the stone is removed surgically and using a compact ultrasound unit. The type of anesthesia depends on the complexity of the procedure and the patience of the dog.
Previously, using a special coloring marker, identify problem areas, even where the dental deposits are not visible to the naked eye. Then the tartar is crushed into parts, the teeth are polished with the action of ultrasonic waves and protected with a film of fluorine-containing varnish.
After removal and rehabilitation of the oral cavity, it is necessary to apply preventive measures for the formation of plaque:
- observe feeding regimen;
- avoid giving your pets a sugar-containing treat;
- after eating, give cleansing bones;
- food must contain hard pieces, naturally cleansing the surface of the teeth;
- clean your dog's teeth regularly with a brush and toothpaste;
- use prophylactic agents, such as ProDen PlaqueOff dietary supplement.
Constant brushing of the dog's teeth and the use of preventive measures will keep their health and beautiful appearance of the pet's mouth for a long time.