The health of the digestive system depends largely on the condition of the teeth. This statement is also true of domestic pets. Many dental diseases begin with the process of dental calculus. As a result, the caring owner should monitor the cleanliness of the dog's teeth and know how to safely and effectively remove the plaque by himself.
- Состав и структура камней 1. Composition and structure of stones
- Причины образования зубного камня у собак 2. Causes of calculus formation in dogs
- Лечение в домашних условиях 3. Treatment at home
- Терапевтические мероприятия в клинике 4. Therapeutic activities in the clinic
- Профилактические меры 5. Preventive measures
Structure and structure of stones
Dental calculus in dogs is the deposition of a complex composition formed by mineral substances that are part of the bone tissue (calcium, phosphorus), iron, food residues, epithelial cells, bacteria and products of their vital activity. Unlike human (pH = 6,5-7,5), the pH of the dog's saliva is strongly alkaline (pH = 9), which reduces the risk of caries formation, but contributes to the enhanced formation of dental deposits.
Dental stone differs in consistence and color. In the initial stage, a loose coating is formed, consisting of food, mucus and bacteria residues. Plaque or dental plaque whitish-yellow color is easily removed from the enamel. In places where the accumulation of plaque is not removed naturally by chewing, deposition of tartar occurs. Dental plaques are compacted, impregnated with mineral components, and a stone formation is formed. The porous surface of the deposits absorbs the colorants, so the tartar turns yellow, turns brown, and then - dark, almost black.
The formation of the stones on the teeth begins with the place of the least mechanical friction - the descending margin, next to the exit of the salivary glands. In the raid, there are microorganisms, which in the course of their vital activity produce insoluble mineral compounds that promote the hardening of tartar. In order to form a stone, it is enough from 3 months. up to six months. Therefore, veterinarians advise to conduct an examination of teeth every six months.
Dental calculus is formed on the neck of the teeth, can be localized on the root or capture part of the crown of the tooth. Depending on the location, there are two types of tartar:
- supragingival - formed above the upper edge of the gum. It is easily visible to the naked eye, it is easily removed from the enamel;
- subgingival is formed below the edge of the gum - between the root and the wall of the alveolus. It is more "dense" in consistency and much darker in color than supragingival. This type of stone is difficult to remove with a conventional dental instrument.
The formation of dense stone-like deposits is affected by many factors. According to statistics, small breeds of dogs are the most susceptible to stone formation.
It is necessary to know how to brush your teeth so that there is no tartar .
Causes of calculus formation in dogs
The dog causes stone formation as follows:
- malnutrition : the predominance of food that does not have an abrasive effect on the teeth (soft); Sweets and sugar in the dog's diet;
- violation of the metabolism, primarily, water-salt balance;
- gum disease or teeth;
- anomalies in the development of the dentition or jaw structure;
- insufficient hygiene procedures;
- individual features of the structure of the dental crown (microcracks and roughness of the enamel), etc.
In pets, the process of stone formation does not threaten life, but its presence damages the teeth, reflects on the state of the digestive system, causes inflammation of the gums. In addition, tartar spoils the aesthetic perception, causes an unpleasant odor, can lead to chronic intoxication of the body.
Bacterial microflora, rapidly developing in dental deposits, secretes toxins that can cause gastritis, ulcers, hepatopathies. The constant effect on the body of pathogenic microorganisms reduces the level of immunity. Therefore, if you find a tartar in your pet, you must always contact the veterinarian or try to remove the deposits yourself.
It is not always possible to get professional help. If the dog has tartar, but there is no way to contact the vet clinic, you can try to cope with the problem yourself. Veterinary pharmacies and pet stores have special brushes, toothpastes and powders, with which you can remove plaque. In pet stores and the Internet, you can buy ready-made sets for dogs, for example:
- "8 in 1" DDS Canine Dental Kit;
- Oral Hygiene Kit;
- Hartz Brush'n Clean Dental.
In addition to special brushes and pastes, it is recommended to use so-called "liquid toothbrushes":
- Dental Fresh;
- Beaphar Fresh Breath Spray;
- Espree Dental Gel with crystals;
- Nutri-Vet «Breath Fresh».
These hygiene products for the oral cavity in dogs are used when the animal refuses to brush teeth. To clean teeth in dogs, you can use a paste made from baby tooth powder and 3% peroxide solution.
To clean the teeth surface, pets can use special tools for removing stones - Ksident Eleksir and its analogues. Elixir not only dissolves stones, but also prevents the formation of new deposits. It is recommended to apply Xident once a week to the teeth of a dog with a cotton swab or a swab impregnated with a remedy.
Eleksin is not toxic, therefore it is not necessary to wash it off. After a tampon or cotton wool was held for 2-3 minutes on the teeth, they should be wiped with a dry cloth to remove the remains of the stone. In Eleksir there are anti-inflammatory and disinfectant components.
If you can not remove the stone chemically, you can try to clean the plaque with a special dental instrument - a scaler or a metal object without a cutting edge, so as not to injure the gums of the pet. Scaler - a metal hook with a rounded end, fixed on the handle. But any plate can fit, which is convenient to clean the stone and you can not injure the gum or damage the enamel.
During mechanical cleaning, the animal's head must be securely fixed. Push back the lip, put the scaler below the gum to the crown of the tooth. Confident movement of the scaler to clean off the deposit. If tartar does not lend itself, it must be softened beforehand by the patient. It is necessary to carefully remove the stone not only from the front surface of the crown, but between the teeth. After cleansing, the gum is wiped with a disc moistened with a solution of hydrogen peroxide, to reduce bleeding and disinfection. The gums are treated with Lugol's solution, which cauterizes small wounds and abrasions.
Not every dog owner can independently carry out the procedure. In the initial stage, when the deposits are still loose, you can use to clean the adhesive tablets. In the event that the owner has not been able to clean the dog's teeth on his own, you should contact the vet clinic. It is impossible to remove the stones that were formed under the gums of the dog. In this case, only a veterinarian will help.
Read also: treatment of stomatitis in dogs .
Therapeutic events in the clinic
Rough strata of a stone are better entrusted to a professional. In the veterinary clinic, the stone is removed surgically and using a compact ultrasound unit. The type of anesthesia depends on the complexity of the procedure and the patient's patience.
Preliminary, using a special coloring marker, identify problem areas, even where the dental deposits are not visible with the naked eye. Then the tartar is crushed into parts, with the action of ultrasonic waves, the teeth are polished and protected with a film of fluorine-containing lacquer.
After removal and sanitation of the oral cavity, it is necessary to apply measures of prevention of plaque formation:
- comply with the feeding regime;
- avoid giving sugar-containing delicacy to pets;
- after eating, give cleansing bones;
- food should contain solid pieces, naturally cleansing the surface of the teeth;
- regularly brush your teeth with a brush and paste;
- use preventive agents, such as ProDen PlaqueOff.
Constant brushing of the dog's teeth and application of preventive measures will preserve their health and beautiful appearance of the pet mouth for a long time.