In all civilized countries vaccination of dogs is a necessary condition for their maintenance. Without vaccination, you will not take a dog on the road, it will not be allowed to participate in competitions and exhibitions. Every pet should have a passport with all the necessary data, including the vaccination performed. And the owners of a four-legged friend should take care of this.
The rules of vaccination
According to veterinary specialists, the main function of vaccinations is to prevent the development of serious infectious ailments in the pet. Rabies , plague , parvovirus and caronavirus enteritis , etc. - all these diseases threaten serious health problems, up to a lethal outcome. Veterinarians often have to lull dogs , although with vaccines, such measures would not have to be resorted to. Hence the conclusion - vaccination is vital for the pet.
For its conduct it is important to follow a few simple rules:
- Only a healthy animal is vaccinated. For this, the dog is inspected before the procedure.
- For vaccination, an individual vaccination schedule for dogs should be made, based on the species and the manufacturer of the preparation. Only a professional doctor can do this.
- Vaccinations are given to dogs regardless of their place of residence. The risk is exposed and street guards, and home companions in the same percentage.
- Before the procedure, the dog undergoes special training, which includes the intake of anthelmintic agents and external treatment from fleas and ticks. During this period, it is also necessary to minimize the contact of the pet with strangers, both humans and animals. All this should be done two weeks before the vaccination.
- If the plans are viscous , then the animal should be vaccinated 2-3 months before it. If this is not done, then the risk of obtaining unhealthy offspring is significantly increased.
All the rules are simple, and their observance will help to conduct the procedure without any side effects.
Scheme of vaccination of dogs
Proceeding from the scheme, the first vaccination falls on the puppy's age from 8 to 9 weeks. Re-inoculation is given to the pet three weeks later. Earlier grafting by veterinarians is not recommended, since the baby's immune system, energized by the mother's antibodies through the breast colostrum, does not develop independently.
Another vaccine is given after the puppy has changed all the teeth, that is, by five to six months. Once all the vaccines are affixed, the puppy quits the quarantine state, he is allowed to communicate with other animals. With age, the amount of protective antibodies in a dog decreases, and by 1.5-3 months they become more vulnerable to infectious diseases.
In modern preparations for vaccinations contain less aggressive microorganisms than their natural forms, so the reaction of protective mechanisms to their introduction can be formed only at the age of 2-3 months.
Steady immunity to infection is formed only two weeks after vaccination. It should be borne in mind that at this time the baby's body is in a weakened state and has a high susceptibility to infection with natural pathogens.
For some vaccines, repeated administration of the drug will be required, after the first vaccination, the immunity will be formed 2 weeks after the revaccination. Then, to regularly support the immune system, vaccinations are given once a year.
Vaccination against rabies, if the puppy lives at home and regularly walks in public areas, do from three to four months once, and then repeats once a year. Dogs kept in cages without access to other relatives are advised to carry out this vaccine no earlier than nine months.
For the owners of dogs - puppies have a period in life characterized by an immune breach, at this time the immunity obtained from colostrum of the mother does not protect against external threats, and the vaccine has not yet formed. Puppy must be protected from sources of infection. It is necessary to exclude stressful situations, contact with other animals, and also to ensure that the baby is not overtired and not supercooled. On the street you can not get it out, nor can you bathe.
Pet more than ever, at this time needs a balanced diet, enriched with vitamin complexes and minerals . After vaccination for one and a half weeks, it is necessary to save the puppy from long physical exertion and tiresome trips.
Vaccination is not an easy process, and it is important to watch the dog closely in the first 48 hours after it is carried out. In case of possible complications, it is necessary to contact the veterinary clinic.
Price of vaccination of dogs
The cost of vaccination is made up of several factors:
- Inoculation is done in a veterinary clinic or in a patient at home;
- domestic or imported manufacturer of the drug;
- what category does the veterinarian vaccinate?
- level of the veterinary clinic.
On average, the cost of vaccination is as follows:
- Use polyvalent Russian vaccine (Multakan, Biovak) for dogs at home - 1100 rubles;
- Use of polyvalent vaccine of foreign manufacture (Nivivac, Eurikan, Vangard) at home - 1400 rub.
Registration of a passport with veterinary marks on average will cost 150-200 rubles.
The vaccination of pets in the clinic will cost cheaper by 500-600 rubles.
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What vaccinations do the puppy do?
One of the first vaccines are from the following infections:
- Parvovirus enteritis;
- Infectious hepatitis.
Later (at 12-14 weeks), dogs are vaccinated against rabies and leptospirosis .
From one month to six months, vaccines for microsporia and trichophytosis are given.
Varieties of vaccines
Based on the basis of drugs, vaccines are divided into five types:
- live attenuated (attenuated) - these vaccines include viable strains of pathogenic pathogens with reduced ability to influence the body (Bivirovax, Multikan, etc.);
- killed (inactivated) - drugs are made from microorganisms killed by chemical or physical effects (Wakderm, Trivirokan);
- chemical - are obtained by purifying the antigens of pathogens from negative components using chemical and physical methods;
- anatoxins (toxoids) - vaccines, which are made from previously neutralized toxic substances of pathogens (inoculations against tetanus, botulism, etc.);
In addition to the already available vaccines, the development of more advanced (promising) means - genetically engineered, subunit, etc., is actively underway.
The composition and properties of vaccines are based on the following classification:
- complex (they also associated, polivakciny, etc.) - consist of several components, each of which forms immunity against one of the infections - Vangard, Multikan, etc.);
- divaxycins (double) - form an immune defense against two pathogens (Bivirovax, Multikan-2);
- homologous - are produced from the material obtained from the same species of animal for which the vaccine is intended, have an advantage over other drugs, since they do not include foreign proteins;
- monovaccines - contain the antigen of the pathogen of only one infectious disease (Vakchum et al.)
- polyvalent, or in another way - polystyamine - are made from several types of pathogens of one infectious disease (Leptodog, etc.)
Also vaccines are divided into species, depending on the method of use:
- aerosols (inhalation) - are introduced through the dog's respiratory tract;
- intravenous - put directly into a vein;
- intramuscular - the drug is injected into muscle tissue;
- subcutaneous - the introduction of the vaccine occurs in the skin layers;
- Intranasal - water the mucous membranes of the nose;
- conjunctival - the vaccine is injected into the conjunctival sac;
- skin - are applied to the skin with subsequent scarification;
- oral - the vaccine enters the body through the mucosa of the digestive system.
When vaccinating small breeds of dogs are more often used drugs for subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Intravenous vaccinations are placed much less often because of concerns about the development of allergies , including complications in the form of anaphylactic shock.
In any case, caring for the pet, it is necessary to select the most effective vaccine, which reliably protects the baby from diseases.