The dog has lived with a man from ancient times, shares his shelter with him and plays with his children. Is it possible to doubt her devotion and friendliness? If the animal is domestic, does not show aggression and is healthy, then no. And what about the other dogs that live on the street? The street mongrel is a formidable enemy who defends his territory and himself. In this case, the bite is more a regularity than a surprise. Let's figure out what to do if the dog bites.
- Виды укусов 1. Types of bites
- Симптомы укуса собаки 2. Symptoms of a dog bite
- Признаки бешенства у человека 3. Signs of rabies in humans
- Вакцинирование человека от бешенства 4. Vaccination of a person against rabies
- Когда прививка может не помочь 5. When the vaccine may not help
- Действия после укуса собаки 6. Actions after a dog bite
- Видео по теме 7. Related Videos
- Когда необходима врачебная помощь и лечение 8. When medical care and treatment is needed
Types of bites
Before understanding what it is necessary to do, it is important to understand the types of bites. Bites from the dog's teeth are divided into two types:
- Stab wounds - the depth exceeds the width of the lesions. In this case, bleeding occurs at the site of damage, which requires prompt assistance. First of all, the blood is stopped, then the wounds are treated with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs, and a gauze dressing is applied on top of the injuries.
- Ragged wounds - arise from the sliding of the teeth on the skin with simultaneously exerted pressure. This bite has noticeable damage to the skin and is more dangerous than chopped. The skin may exfoliate or even partially scalp. Most often, limbs, both upper and lower, suffer. In situations with children, the face and head become the most vulnerable place. In most cases, suturing and continued treatment under the supervision of a specialist is required.
Symptoms of a dog bite
After bites, there may be both a small wound and a significant damage. And in either case, a person may be threatened with dangerous complications. As a rule, the symptoms appear immediately:
- Infection of the wound. Already during a bite or after there is a risk of getting an infection. In this situation, a person begins to fever, shiver. The body temperature rises. Skin covers around the lesion turn red, swell, and lymph nodes increase significantly.
- Fractures of bones . Large dogs with powerful jaws can not simply break, but also split the human bone. This especially applies to dogs fighting breeds.
- Damage to muscle tissue and bleeding (both external and internal).
- Suppuration of wounds. Without timely assistance and care for the trauma, very often pus begins to accumulate in the tissues.
- Infection with various infections - E. coli, mites and the most dangerous - rabies .
In any case, after an animal attack, it is necessary to seek medical help. If a person has lost consciousness or feels a fever, he is vomiting, then do not hesitate, but immediately call an emergency ambulance. In this case, it is a question of such possible consequences as disability and even death.
Among the most dangerous consequences can be identified infection with rabies. This case is worth considering in more detail.
Signs of rabies in humans
Once the virus enters the body, the incubation period immediately begins, which on average lasts from 1 to 3 months. The further the site of infection from the brain, the longer this period will be. Three stages of the disease are divided:
- The initial. Duration from 1 to 3 days. Even if the wound heals, a person begins to "feel" it, it can be a feeling of pain, burning, itching. Perhaps a swelling of the scar, the temperature rises to 37 ° C and holds at this level. The person's condition changes - he feels weak, there is a disorder of the stool and a urge to vomit. During this same period, various hallucinations and a depressive state begin to haunt him. The dream is broken, and nightmares appear.
- The stage of excitement (2-3 days). Characterized by the development of hydrophobia, fear of water. View, and in the future and the sound of water provokes spasms of swallowing muscles and respiratory muscles. A person develops convulsions and a feeling of overwhelming fear. The patient's focus is focused at one point, the pupils dilate.
- The stage of paralysis (from 12 hours to 1 day). Outwardly a person calms down, his functions of movement and feelings fade away. The body temperature rises to 42 ° C, the pressure drops, and the heart rate increases. A person dies as a result of paralysis of the heart muscle, or of the respiratory system.
Vaccinating a person from rabies
At the slightest suspicion of a disease, a person is grafted into the buttock or forearm. Of course, it does not consist of 40 mythical injections, but only six, which completely remove the virus. The vaccination scheme is as follows:
- First of all, it is put on the day of the person's admission to the medical institution;
- then after three days;
- on the seventh day;
- in two weeks, on the 14th day;
- in a month, on the 30th day;
- in three months, on the 90th day.
Vaccination against rabies is the only way to cure. In some cases, if the dog is alive and well after 10 days, the vaccination is stopped.
When the vaccine may not help
For a healthy, up to a dog bite, a human vaccine is 100% salvage. But there are a number of reasons why it may not work:
- congenital weakness of the immune system;
- long-term treatment with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants;
- belated vaccination;
- overdue or improperly stored vaccine;
- omission of procedures;
- reception of alcohol.
Actions after a dog bite
After biting a dog (even having vaccinations), the victim needs help:
- First of all, you need to inspect the damage - to determine the severity of the injury, whether the bones, large vessels, ligaments have been affected.
- Before treatment, stop bleeding. If the artery is touched, then it is necessary to apply a tourniquet above the damaged site, in the case of the veined vein, a tightly fitting bandage will be enough.
- Treatment of the bite occurs as follows: washed with boiled water with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, if there is no means, then soapy water will do; after the wound is treated with an antiseptic agent - a weak solution of potassium permanganate or furicillin. Skin covers around the lesion can be greased with iodine solution or green.
- The treated wound is covered with a gauze dressing, which should not be strongly tightened without bleeding.
Often, such procedures are enough to avoid complications and achieve successful tissue healing.
When you need medical help and treatment
All serious injuries require an examination of a trauma specialist. And punctured and lacerated wounds can threaten significant complications. Most ragged wounds require suturing, with any facial wounds and bites in the head area, you also need to see a doctor.
If the child is injured, it is often necessary to consult a psychologist in addition to medical assistance.
For minor injuries, the treatment of a bite can be dealt with on its own, following the basic rules:
- Daily inspect and treat the wound.
- Affected area can not be wet.
- Every day, replace the bandage with a new one.
- If there are minor discharges from the bitten place, it will be necessary to wash the solution with antiseptic (at this time it is not necessary to use hydrogen peroxide), and then sprinkle the bite with talcum powder (you can use baby powder).
- Use an ointment under the bandage if the wound is not wet and without discharge.
Among the ointments of high efficiency with bites and other wounds differs Synthomycin ointment and liniment balsamic according to Vishnevsky. As an antiseptic, it is recommended to use Panthenol and Acutol sprays.
If the lesions are serious, then only the doctor can conduct appropriate treatment. If an infection has entered the wound, then a course of antibiotics is prescribed.
In the case of emergency aid, an ambulance is called up, in other situations it is possible to contact the therapist at the clinic or immediately to the infectious disease doctor.
Of course, a dog's bite is an unpleasant, and sometimes dangerous, phenomenon. But it is not always the animal that is to blame for this phenomenon. Do not be careless and approach unfamiliar dogs, try to iron them, especially to show aggression, as you can run into a "response". In the event of an attack, the victim should be given first aid and taken to the clinic himself or called an ambulance.