The dog from ancient times lives next to a man, shares shelter with him and plays with his children. Can we doubt her loyalty and friendliness? If the animal is domestic, does not show aggression and healthy, then no. And what about the other dogs that constantly live on the street? A street mongrel is a formidable enemy who protects his territory and himself. In this case, a bite is more a pattern than a surprise. Let's figure out what to do if the dog bit.
- Виды укусов 1. Types of bites
- Симптомы укуса собаки 2. Symptoms of a dog bite
- Признаки бешенства у человека 3. Signs of rabies in humans
- Вакцинирование человека от бешенства 4. Vaccination of a person against rabies
- Когда прививка может не помочь 5. When vaccination may not help.
- Действия после укуса собаки 6. Actions after a dog bite
- Видео по теме 7. Related videos
- Когда необходима врачебная помощь и лечение 8. When necessary medical care and treatment.
Types of bites
Before you understand what needs to be done, it is important to understand the types of bites. The bites received from the dog's teeth are divided into two types:
- Puncture wounds - depth exceeds the width of the damage. In this case, bleeding opens at the injury site, which requires early help. First of all, the blood is stopped, then the wounds are treated using antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents, and a gauze bandage is applied on top of the damage.
- Torn wounds - occur due to the sliding of the teeth over the skin with simultaneously exerted pressure. This bite has noticeable damage to the skin and is more dangerous than the puncture. The skin may flake off or even partially scalp. Most often affected limbs, both upper and lower. In situations with children, the face and head become the most vulnerable point. In most cases, suturing and continuation of treatment under the supervision of a specialist is required.
Symptoms of a dog bite
After bites can remain as a small wound, and significant damage. In either case, the person may face the occurrence of dangerous complications. Symptoms usually appear immediately:
- Wound infection Already during a bite or after there is a risk of infection. In this situation, the person begins to fever, shiver. The body temperature rises. The skin around the damage is red, swollen, and lymph nodes are enlarged.
- Fractures of the bones . Large dogs with powerful jaws can not only break, but also crush a human bone. This especially applies to fighting dog breeds.
- Damage to muscle tissue and bleeding (both external and internal).
- Suppuration of wounds. Without timely help and care for the injury, very often pus begins to accumulate in the tissues.
- Infection with various infections - Escherichia coli, ticks and most dangerous - rabies .
In any case, after the attack of the animal must seek medical help. If a person has lost consciousness or feels fever, he is tormented by vomiting, then you should not hesitate and immediately call for an emergency ambulance. In this case, we are talking about such possible consequences as disability and even death.
Among the most dangerous consequences can be identified rabies infection. This case is worth considering in more detail.
Signs of rabies in humans
As soon as the virus enters the body, the incubation period immediately begins, which on average lasts from 1 to 3 months. The farther the site of infection from the brain, the longer this period will be. Three stages of the disease are divided:
- Initial. Duration from 1 to 3 days. Even if the wound heals, the person begins to "feel" it, it can be a feeling of pain, burning, itching. Swelling of the scar is possible, the temperature rises to 37 ° C and stays at this level. A person's condition changes - he feels weak, there is a disorder in the chair and the urge to vomit. In the same period, various hallucinations and a depressive state begin to haunt him. Sleep is disturbed, and nightmares appear.
- Stage of arousal (2-3 days). Characterized by the development of hydrophobia, the fear of water. The view, and further the sound of water, provokes spasms of swallowing muscles and respiratory muscles. A person develops convulsions and a feeling of overwhelming fear. The sight of the patient is focused at one point, the pupils dilate.
- Stage of paralysis (from 12 hours to 1 day). Externally, a person calms down, his functions of movement and senses fade away. The body temperature rises to 42 ° C, the pressure drops, and the heartbeat quickens. A person dies due to paralysis of the heart muscle, or respiratory organs.
Human Vaccination for Rabies
At the slightest suspicion of a disease, a person is vaccinated in the buttock or forearm. Of course, it does not consist of 40 mythical injections, but only out of six that completely remove the virus. The vaccination scheme is as follows:
- it is initially placed on the day a person enters a medical institution;
- then after three days;
- on the seventh day;
- in two weeks, on the 14th day;
- in a month, on the 30th day;
- in three months, on the 90th day.
Rabies vaccination is the only cure. In some cases, if after 10 days the dog is alive and well, then the person’s vaccination is stopped.
When vaccination may not help
For a healthy person, before a dog bite, a human vaccine is 100% salvation. But there are a number of reasons when it may not work:
- congenital weakness of the immune system;
- long-term treatment with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants;
- late vaccination;
- expired or incorrectly stored vaccine;
- missed procedures;
- alcohol intake.
Actions after a dog bite
After a dog bite (even having vaccinations), the victim needs help:
- First of all, you need to inspect the damage - to establish the severity of the injury, whether the bones, large vessels, ligaments suffered.
- Before treatment, you need to stop bleeding. If an artery is damaged, it is necessary to apply a tourniquet above the damaged area, in the case of an affected vein there will be a sufficiently tight dressing.
- The bite is treated as follows: washed with boiled water with the addition of hydrogen peroxide, if there is no money, then soapy water will do; after the wound is treated with an antiseptic agent - a weak solution of potassium permanganate or furacilin. The skin around the damage can be smeared with iodine solution or brilliant green.
- The treated wound is covered with a gauze bandage, which should not be strongly tightened without any bleeding.
Often, such procedures are sufficient to avoid complications and to achieve a healthy healing of tissues.
When you need medical care and treatment
All severe injuries require an examination by a traumatologist. Both stabbed and lacerated wounds can face significant complications. Most of the lacerated wounds require suturing, and for any facial wounds and bites in the head area, it is also necessary to consult a doctor.
If the child has suffered, then often, in addition to medical assistance, a psychologist will be required.
With minor injuries, the bite can be treated independently, in compliance with the basic rules:
- Inspect and treat the wound daily.
- Do not wet the affected area.
- Every day, replace the dressing with a new one.
- If there is a slight discharge from the bitten place, then you will need washing with a solution with an antiseptic (at this time you should not use hydrogen peroxide), and then powder the bite with talcum powder (you can use baby powder).
- Use ointment under the dressing if the wound is not wet and without discharge.
Among ointments, Sintomitsinovaya ointment and Liniment balsamic according to Vishnevsky are highly effective for bites and other wounds. As an antiseptic it is recommended to use sprays Panthenol and Akutol.
If the damage is serious, only a doctor can carry out the appropriate treatment. If an infection gets into the wound, then a course of antibiotics is prescribed.
In case of necessary emergency help, an ambulance is called; in other situations, you can contact a general practitioner at the clinic or an infectious disease specialist immediately.
Of course, a dog bite is an unpleasant and sometimes dangerous phenomenon. But the animal is not always to blame for such a phenomenon. You should not be careless and approach strangers dogs, try to stroke them, especially to show aggression, because you can run into a “response”. In the event of an attack, the victim should be given first aid and taken to the clinic on his own or to call an ambulance.