The third eyelid in dogs or - a semilunar fold, is located on the inner corner of the eye. In humans, this part of the body has long become rudimentary, that is, lost its original functions, and is in the stage of rudiment. However, in domestic animals, such as dogs, this fold functions, performing an auxiliary and protective role for the organ of vision. When you touch the eye, or if the dog tilts the head, the protective mechanism works - the third eyelid covers the cornea from possible damage. But, unfortunately, this fold itself often causes various pathological conditions.
- Выпадение века – причины и особенности 1. Fall of the century - causes and features
- Удалять или нет выпавшую железу 2. To remove or not the fallen out iron
- Как излечивается патология 3. How is the pathology cured?
- Заворот глазного века у собаки 4. Eye eyelid twisting in a dog
- Аденома века (истинная и ложная) 5. Adenoma of the century (true and false)
Fall of the century - causes and features
Another name for the pathology is the prolapse of the lacrimal gland of the 3rd century, which is quite common among diseases of the animal's visual organ. It is with this problem that owners of four-footed pets often seek veterinary assistance.
In this condition, the tear gland changes its normal position and becomes visible in the corner of the dog's eye. According to anatomical norms, it is located in the 3rd century at its base, under the mucous membrane of the eye. This lacrimal gland is an additional secretory organ, which accounts for 10 to 30% of the entire tear fluid, which moisturizes and protects the cornea of the eyeball.
Not always falling out is an independent ailment. In most cases, it occurs against a background of more serious diseases. The development of this pathology in an animal can occur in the following cases:
- if a foreign object and the place of its localization after the third century fell into the eye;
- when injuring the eye;
- if there has been a twist or turn of the century;
- with atrophic changes in the tissues of the eyeball;
- with the development of inflammatory processes in the bones of the upper jaw, nose, eye orbits;
- when new tumors appear in these same bones - malignant or benign origin.
With unilateral prolapse, it is often found purulent inflammation of the tissues - an abscess, partial or complete paralysis of the facial nerve. This pathology is possible with a broken innervation of the sympathetic system.
If the dog has a prolapse of the gland from both eyes, then the following is excluded from the causes of the ailment:
- foreign body entry;
- damage to the cornea of the eye;
- defeat of the central nervous system;
- pathological exhaustion of the body;
- intoxication processes in the body;
In domestic pets, the loss of the eyelid can occur in a stressful situation, due to infections in a latent state, helminthic invasions.
There are a number of breeds that are prone to this pathology:
- cane corso ;
- Yorkshire Terrier ;
- English Bulldog ;
- American and English Cocker Spaniel ;
- naked dogs - Chinese crested and Mexican;
- pug and others.
In general, predisposition is observed in dogs with a loose physique, and also often suffering from ectropion - eyelid eversion. The risk group also includes puppies aged 5 to 9 months.
To remove or not the fallen out iron
Only a dozen years ago in domestic veterinary medicine, the fallen gland of the third century was eliminated by a single method - surgical removal. But studies have shown that in animals that have undergone removal, dry keratoconjunctivitis is often diagnosed (or as it is also called "dry eye") - a serious disease of the eye that is not amenable to treatment, associated with a decreased production of tear fluid.
A consequence of this was the refusal of ophthalmologists from this operation, since the lacrimal gland is still not a rudimentary, but quite functional organ that produces a large number of tears and participates in the production of tear film.
Today, this problem is also solved with the help of a surgeon, but for the return of the organ to its original place and restoration of its former functionality. Timely operation also helps to avoid the gland drying, the development of the inflammatory process, the reintroduction of infection. And, in addition, this surgery will eliminate the unattractive appearance of the pet.
How is the pathology cured?
Naturally, with this ailment, qualified help is needed, as independent intervention can damage the health of the pet. If it is an early stage of prolapse, the surgeon can return it to the place with tweezers, but this will not guarantee that the gland will not fall again. Therefore, more often veterinarians prefer surgical correction.
If a strong inflammatory process has developed in the gland, then initially therapy is carried out, including antibiotic and hormonal drugs. It lasts an average of at least 5 days. And only after the drug treatment is prescribed an operation that is carried out by one of the methods - fixative or pocket. Owners are not recommended to feed a pet 12 hours before the event.
For surgical intervention, a special material for seams, a microsurgical instrument and ophthalmic instruments equipped with optics is required. After surgery, you should listen to the advice of an ophthalmologist:
- To avoid risks of eye injury by the pet, it is recommended to wear a special protective collar constantly for 10-14 days.
- Before the full restoration of the gland functions, it is necessary to use topical preparations with antibacterial action and drops with moisturizing effect. This therapy can last from 2 to 4 weeks, it will eliminate inflammation, protect the cornea from infection and prevent dry eyes.
If the operation is performed correctly and all postoperative recommendations are followed, then after 4 weeks all the signs of the disease will completely disappear.
As a rule, the iron completely restores its functionality after a month and a half. But on average, in 10-15% of cases, this pathology again arises in dogs and the operation is repeated. In animals that are prone to prolapse of the gland, quite often after the pathology of one eye, the same thing happens on the other.
In modern veterinary medicine, the method of surgical correction of the gland is a priority, since, unlike its removal, it does not provoke the development of a complication in the form of a "dry eye". But with a complicated course of the disease, various complications, frequent chronic relapses can be assigned to removal. At the same time, the condition of the gland and its functionality are assessed.
Eye eyelid curvature in a dog
Another pathology related to the third century. It consists in its wrapping inside the eye. The origin of this phenomenon is associated with a pet-borne plague of animals, the degeneration of the cartilaginous tissues of the eyelid, or conjunctivitis that affects the lymphatic follicles.
The following breeds are at risk:
- Great Danes;
- East European Shepherds,
- Dobermanns .
Among the main symptoms of the disease there is a slight narrowing of the eye's slit, serous-mucous fluid oozes out of the eyes. The third eyelid becomes red, swollen, there is a break in the wrapping outside. When examined, compacted nodules can be found on the inside of the organ.
The turn of the 3rd century requires the operation, domestic veterinarians - ophthalmologists apply the technology of EP. Kopenkova. This is an effective surgical method of correcting the pathology, which is performed with local superficial anesthesia. The conjunctiva is dissected, a small area is cut out from it, then the tissues are sewn together. Then the third eyelid is put in place.
After the operation, standard methods are used: the use of a protective collar, a course of ophthalmic therapeutic films containing neomycin, as well as anti-inflammatory ointments.
Adenoma of the century (true and false)
Pathology refers to severe disorders, and although it is called a benign tumor formation, in most cases, it is not. More often we are talking about hyperplasia or the inflammatory process of the century, because of which the organ becomes larger and goes beyond the boundaries of the anatomical location.
Naturally, differentiated diagnostics are carried out, revealing whether or not education is neoplastic, but this is rarely confirmed. If a biopsy has confirmed the presence of a tumor, then a surgical method is used. In the case of a small amount of education, there is no need for surgery, especially if it does not cause concern to the pet and does not limit the visual functions of the eye.
If the eyelid is swollen and reddened for other reasons, then traditional anti-inflammatory therapy is used. It is quite effective and has a minimum of side effects.
The third eyelid eye, though invisible, but an important organ for the dog, so it is necessary to preserve it. At the first symptoms of pathological conditions, you should seek advice from a veterinarian.