The third eyelid in dogs, or - the lunate fold, is located on the inner corner of the eye. In humans, this part of the body has long become rudimentary, that is, has lost its original function, and is in the bud stage. However, in pets, for example, dogs, this fold functions by performing an auxiliary and protective role for the organ of vision. When you touch the eye, or if the dog tilts his head, a protective mechanism works - the third eyelid closes the cornea from possible damage. But, unfortunately, this fold itself often becomes the cause of various pathological conditions.
- Выпадение века – причины и особенности 1. The Fall of a Century - Causes and Features
- Удалять или нет выпавшую железу 2. To remove or not the fallen out gland
- Как излечивается патология 3. How is pathology cured?
- Заворот глазного века у собаки 4. Inversion of the eyelid in the dog
- Аденома века (истинная и ложная) 5. Adenoma century (true and false)
Loss of a century - causes and features
Another name for pathology is the prolapse of the lacrimal gland of the 3rd century, which is quite common among the diseases of the visual organ of animals. It is with this problem that the owners of four-legged pets most often seek veterinary care.
In this state, the lacrimal gland changes its normal position and becomes visible in the corner of the dog's eye. According to anatomical standards, it is located at the 3rd century at its base, under the mucous membrane of the eye. This lacrimal gland is an additional secretory organ, which accounts for 10 to 30% of the total tear fluid that moisturizes and protects the cornea of the eyeball.
Not always falling out is an independent ailment. In most cases, it occurs against the background of more serious diseases. The development of this pathology in an animal can occur in the following cases:
- if a foreign object has entered the eye and the place of its localization after the third century;
- in case of injury to the eye;
- if there was a torsion or reversal of the century;
- with atrophic changes in the tissues of the eyeball;
- with the development of inflammatory processes in the bones of the upper jaw, nose, eye orbits;
- with the appearance of tumors in the same bones - a malignant or benign origin.
When unilateral prolapse is often found purulent inflammation of the tissues - an abscess, partial or complete paralysis of the facial nerve. This pathology is possible with impaired innervation of the sympathetic system.
If a dog has a loss of gland from both eyes, then among the causes of the disease the following is excluded:
- foreign body penetration;
- damage to the cornea;
- damage to the central nervous system;
- pathological depletion of the body;
- intoxication processes in the body;
In pets, the loss of a century can occur in a stressful situation, due to infections that are latent, worm infestations.
There are a number of breeds that have a tendency to this pathology:
- Cane Corso ;
- yorkshire terrier ;
- English Bulldog ;
- American and English Cocker Spaniel ;
- Hairless Dogs - Chinese Crested and Mexican;
- pug and others
In general, predisposition is observed in dogs with loose constitution, as well as often suffering from ectropion - eyelid inversion. The risk group also includes puppies aged from 5 to 9 months.
Remove or not the fallen out gland
Only a dozen years ago, in the domestic veterinary medicine, a third-century glandular gland was removed by a single method — surgical removal. But studies have shown that dry kerato-conjunctivitis (or, as it is also called “dry eye”) is often diagnosed in animals that have undergone removal is a serious eye disease that is not treatable and is associated with reduced production of tears.
The consequence of this was the refusal of ophthalmologists from this operation, since the lacrimal gland is still not rudimentary, but a fully functional organ that produces a large number of tears and participates in the production of the tear film.
Today this problem is also solved with the help of a surgeon, but already to return the organ to its former place and restore its former functionality. Timely surgery will also help to avoid drying out of the gland, the development of the inflammatory process, the reintroduction of infection. And, moreover, this surgical intervention will eliminate the unattractive type of pet.
How is pathology cured
Naturally, with this ailment, qualified assistance is necessary, as independent intervention can harm the health of a pet. If we are talking about the early stage of prolapse, then the surgeon can use it with tweezers to return it to its place, but this will not guarantee that the iron will not fall out again. Therefore, nevertheless, more often veterinarians prefer surgical reduction.
If a strong inflammatory process has developed in the gland, then therapy is initially carried out, including antibiotics and hormones. It lasts an average of at least 5 days. And only after medical treatment prescribed surgery, which is carried out according to one of the methods - fixing or pocket. Owners are not recommended to feed the pet 12 hours before the event.
For surgical intervention requires a special material for sutures, microsurgical instrument and ophthalmic instruments, equipped with optics. After the operation, you should listen to the advice of an ophthalmologist:
- To avoid the risk of injury to the eye by the pet, it is recommended that you always wear a special protective collar for 10-14 days.
- Until complete restoration of gland functions, it is necessary to apply agents for local use with an antibacterial effect and drops with a moisturizing effect. Such therapy can last from 2 to 4 weeks, it will eliminate inflammation, protect the cornea from infection and prevent dry eyes.
If the operation is carried out correctly and all postoperative recommendations are followed, then in 4 weeks all signs of the disease will completely disappear.
As a rule, iron completely restores its functionality after a month and a half. But on average, in 10-15% of cases, this pathology reappears in dogs and the operation is repeated. In animals with a tendency to prolapse of the gland, quite often after the pathology of one eye, the same thing happens on the other.
In modern veterinary medicine, the method of surgical correction of the gland is a priority, since, unlike its removal, it does not provoke the development of a “dry eye” complication. But with a complicated course of the disease, various kinds of complications, frequent chronic relapses, removal may be prescribed. At the same time, the state of the gland and its functionality are evaluated.
Inversion of the eyelid in the dog
Another pathology concerning the third century. It consists in wrapping it in the eye. The origin of this phenomenon is connected with the animal’s plague suffered by the animal, the degeneration of the cartilage tissues of the century or conjunctivitis affecting the lymphatic follicles.
At risk are the following breeds:
- East European Shepherd Dogs,
Among the main symptoms of the disease there is a slight narrowing of the slit of the eye, serous and mucous fluid oozing from the eyes. The third eyelid becomes red, swollen, there is a breakdown on rolling out. On examination, compacted nodules on the inner side of the organ can be detected.
Inversion of the 3rd century requires an operation, domestic veterinarians - ophthalmologists apply the technology of E.P. Kopenkova. This is an effective surgical method of correcting pathology, which is carried out with local surface anesthesia. The conjunctiva is dissected, a small patch is cut from it, then the tissues are stitched. After which the third eyelid is set in place.
After surgery, standard methods are used: the use of a protective collar, a course of ocular medical films containing neomycin, as well as anti-inflammatory ointments is prescribed.
Century Adenoma (true and false)
Pathology refers to severe disorders, and although it is called a benign tumor formation, in most cases, it is not. More often we are talking about hyperplasia or inflammatory process of the century, because of which the body becomes larger and goes beyond the boundaries of the anatomical location.
Naturally, a differentiated diagnosis is carried out, revealing whether or not the formation is tumor, but this is confirmed quite rarely. If, however, a biopsy confirms the presence of a tumor, then a surgical method is used. In the case of a small education, there is no need for surgery, especially if it does not cause concern to the pet and does not limit the visual functions of the eye.
If the eyelid is swollen and reddened for other reasons, then traditional anti-inflammatory therapy is used. It is quite effective and has a minimum of side effects.
The third eyelid of the eyes, although invisible, but an important organ for the dog, therefore, it is necessary to preserve it. At the first symptoms of pathological conditions should consult a veterinarian.