Toxocarosis is a parasitic disease caused in dogs by round worms-toxocaram. In dogs, jackals, foxes, infection causes a specific Toxocara canis parasite. It parasitizes in the small intestines of carnivorous animals, including humans. Infection is also a threat to the owner of the dog. In contact with the animal's coat, it can become infected with toxocarosis.
- Пути заражения и описание возбудителя 1. Ways of infection and a description of the pathogen
- Симптомы и признаки заражения 2. Symptoms and signs of infection
- Методы диагностики патологии 3. Methods of pathology diagnosis
- Терапия заболевания 4. Disease therapy
Ways of infection and a description of the pathogen
Dogs can become infected by eating the feces of other animals, containing eggs of worms, hunting and eating intermediate hosts of toxocar - mice, rats, birds. Infection can occur transplacentally and through the milk of a nursing bitches.
Eggs, getting into the mouth of a dog, are transported to the digestive system, where the complete cycle of development of worms passes. But a small part of the active larvae, on the 8th day of development, penetrates into the intestinal mucosa and with the current of the lymph falls into the nearby lymph nodes, from them to the liver, heart, lungs.
Fallen into other organs, the larvae cease to develop and can exist for a long time in the encapsulated state. They are activated in some conditions, for example, during pregnancy. An infection occurs in the fetus through the placenta. In the organs of the dog, larvae can be viable for more than 385 days from the time of infection. Migratory larvae are found in all organs of the infected dog.
Eggs, covered with a dense cellular membrane, can for a long time be in the external environment - in water, soil. Getting into the animal's body, a larva hatching from the egg, armed with hooks, by means of which it perforates the walls of the vessels and tissues of the organs. According to epidemiological studies, toxocarosis occurs in 56% of stray dogs. But parasites are found in pets. They were found in 15-16% of domestic dogs.
Symptoms and signs of infection
The severity of symptoms depends on the age and level of immunity of the dog. With a high degree of infection in the dog can block the pancreatic ducts, bile ducts, intestinal lumen. A large mass of helminths can lead to rupture of the walls of the organs and cause peritonitis. In tissues, helminths cause hemorrhage, inflammation and necrosis. The disturbances are caused by the mechanical, toxic, antigenic, trophic activity of migrating helminth larvae.
Migratory larvae destroy the intestinal mucosa and endothelium of vessels. Toxins and the products of the life of worms cause allergic reactions. They are manifested in the form of alopecia, skin dermatoses, eczema. The dog experiences severe itching and combs the skin to the blood. If the number of helminths is small, the disease is asymptomatic. With a significant number of worms in dogs, the following symptoms are noted:
- perversion of food preferences;
- a breakdown in the function of digestion - violation of defecation, vomiting, vomit larvae are found in the vomit;
- anemia, general weakness;
- puppies lag behind in growth and development;
- coughing, discharge from the nose;
- increased abdomen.
Clinical studies have been conducted that showed that the risk group for toxocar infections is young animals younger than 1 year old. In puppies, up to half a year, toxocarosis was detected in 85%, at the age of 9-12 months the disease was found in 46% of animals. With age, the probability of infection decreases. In dogs older than 3 years, toxocarosis is rare (11%).
Due to the fact that with a high degree of infection, the symptoms of the disease are often masked by other symptoms, differential diagnosis is of great importance for an accurate diagnosis.
Methods of pathology diagnosis
The diagnostic study includes:
- analysis of feces for eggs of worms;
- enzyme immunoassay for blood serum;
- analysis of blood and urine.
Sometimes an ultrasound of the abdominal and thoracic cavity is necessary. The results obtained during the survey, allow to identify the infection and establish the type of helminth.
To treat toxocarias in dogs, anthelmmentics are used:
- Drontal plus;
After the course of de-worming the dog can give 10% tincture of propolis for the regeneration of mucous membranes and increase the level of immunity. Studies on the treatment of puppies with a larval form of toxocarias have shown that the use of the Bars spot-on drug containing the complex of ivermectin with praziquantel completely releases dogs from helminths after a week of treatment.
For treatment of puppies at the age of 2 weeks with an intrauterine form of helminthiasis, Drontal Junior and Fenbendazol are used, which have low toxicity. To remove the coat of puppies and nursing bitches from worm eggs, Stronghold drops are used, which have an antiparasitic effect.
According to the symptoms, symptomatic treatment is prescribed. For the prevention of helminthiosis in the case of aviary dogs, veterinarians suggest that deworming of puppies be carried out from 2 weeks to 3 months of age, with an interval between courses of 2 weeks.
Antiparasitic activities are recommended for 45 days in pregnant females and two weeks after the birth of puppies. Correct therapy and prevention of toxocariasis in dogs is of great importance for reducing the risk of infection of dog owners and successful treatment of the animal.