St. Bernards have gained popularity all over the world, and the cinema only warmed up interest in the representatives of this breed. Dogs began to start everywhere, not very considering their features and large dimensions. Who really do these giant dogs fit in and what conditions are necessary for their comfortable keeping?
- История происхождения породы 1. History of the origin of the breed
- Описание породы сенбернар 2. Description of the St. Bernard breed
- Характер и особенности социализации 3. Nature and characteristics of socialization
- Воспитание и дрессировка 4. Education and training
- Чем кормить сенбернара 5. What to feed St. Bernard
- Как ухаживать за сенбернаром 6. How to care for St. Bernard
- Фото сенбернара 7. Photos of St. Bernard
- Видео о сенбернаре 8. Video about St. Bernard
- Стоимость щенка сенбернара 9. The cost of a St. Bernard puppy
- Питомники сенбернара 10. St. Bernard's Catteries
History of the origin of the breed
The ancestors of the St. Bernards are the dogs of the most ancient breed - the Tibetan mastiffs. In the 11th century, the Bernard monk built a shelter for traveling people on the territory of the Swiss Alps, which later became known as St. Bernard's Monastery. Here more than one century monks brought out large guard dogs.
In the 18th century, the natural and climatic conditions in these places changed, the avalanches descended one after another, causing irreparable damage. St. Bernards began to use as rescuers - they could find people under mountain debris.
The universal recognition of the dogs of this breed did not come until the end of the 19th century. At the same time, the first breed standard was established. The native country of the St. Bernards is Switzerland, when the breed was approved, its representatives became national dogs.
Description of the breed St. Bernard
One of the characteristics of these dogs is their impressive size. The growth of males starts from 70 cm, but should not exceed 90 cm. The growth of bitches varies from 68 to 80 cm. As for weight a, the standard indicates a lower figure of 70 kg, while the weight is more often than 100 kg.
St. Bernards have a large, strong physique. Like most giants, the representatives of this breed, unfortunately, have a short life, which is from 8 to 10 years. Also, the drawbacks can be attributed to the mandatory operation of excision of the third century, as it expands, it becomes a hotbed of infectious agents, and the dog will constantly suffer from eye diseases.
According to the classification, they distinguish between soft-haired and woolly dogs, but their body structure is almost identical:
- The head of the St. Bernard is large, with a convex forehead, on which there are wrinkles. Cheekbones high, eyes with damp eyelids, are not deep, the iris is brown. Nose broad, large, nostrils flat. Eyes have a black border, the same color in the animal's lips and nose. The muzzle is short, the nose is a little dull.
- Ears are small, hanging down, the back is lagging behind. The neck is strong, has a small hanging, the wool cover forms a tight collar.
- The dog has a wide back , which ends with a steep loin. Ribs are clearly visible.
- The tail is wide in the base area, with a strong end, heavy.
- The extremities have a wide distribution, are massive, have large rounded paws, which have vaulted fingers.
Coat and coat
In short-haired dogs soft woolly covering, tightly adjacent to the trunk, with a well-developed undercoat. Feathering on the paws are present, but they are weakly expressed. The tail is covered with elongated hair.
For long-haired representatives, straight wool coat is typical, medium length, undercoat is excellent, dense. In the field of hips and croup, it can be wavy. Pants are moderate. In the field of muzzle and ears, the woolly covering is short. The coat covering the tail is thick, long, the forelegs are decorated with rich strips.
The main color is white, on its background there are red-brown small or large spots, or a cloak on the back and trunk. Cloak can be monophonic or in white marks - both options are allowed by the standard. A yellowish brown color is also possible. In addition, a dark brown edge on the head is welcome. And as for dark spots on the body, their standard does not prohibit.
Representatives should have white markings in the chest area, at the end of the tail, on the nose, the collar area. Highly valued white collar and mask with a symmetrical arrangement.
Character and features of socialization
The size and sad look of St. Bernard is somewhat confusing and it seems that he can not possess high intellectual abilities. However, this dog is very smart and has the fastest reaction speed - after all, it's dog-rescuers, who are able to make their own decisions, not sly. But this refers to work, in ordinary life, St. Bernard tries to save energy and does not move unnecessarily.
St. Bernards are excellent family dogs, adoring all members, they try to protect, please and not upset. Therefore, to train dogs of this breed is a pleasure. They have one unique ability, transmitted at the level of genes - dogs are perfectly oriented in space. Pets can return home in the most severe places, having traveled more than a dozen kilometers.
Life in mountain conditions has developed in these dogs hardness of spirit and strong character. They do not tend to panic. Despite the lazy, relaxed appearance, St. Bernard is always ready to help, showing his physical and mental abilities. And they help not only the owner, but also others. These qualities are even among pets, who were not specially trained and brought up.
Dogs are distinguished by good obedience, show obstinacy and excessive activity only in puppyhood. Senbernan necessarily need a family, he feels comfortable if he constantly communicates with people and other pets. The pet finds a common language with his relatives, felines and even hoofed animals. Remaining for a long time alone, the dog will be very sad and may even become depressed.
St. Bernard is not characterized by aggressive behavior. When the smaller dog will attack the giant, he most likely will not even pay attention to it. But in case of danger, for example, when attacking the hosts, he will fight like a lion, and it is beyond his power to defeat him. These dogs are excellent nannies, and to their small owners they allow almost everything. They can play the role of a horse, be a mattress, voluntarily wear harness, and they will not stop guarding.
Education and training
St. Bernard has a lot of positive qualities almost from birth, but this does not mean that he does not need to be brought up. It should be done almost immediately, as soon as the baby crosses the threshold of the house. It is worth immediately showing firmness and even the crying baby does not take in your hands and not invite on the bed. Otherwise, then it will be almost impossible to wean the huge "crumbs". Forbid what was once allowed - a task from the category of impossible.
Despite the large size, the dog does not take up much space - it is enough for it to lay completely on. It is important early socialization - it is worth to introduce the child to public transport, crowded places, parks. Later it will be much more difficult to control the behavior of the dog.
Dogs of this breed can be trained on their own, but if there is no time or skill, it's better to turn to a professional. St. Bernard is a dog designed to help a person, so it is important to show caress and trust - this is the basis for excellent relationships.
Dogs are not stubborn, so they will execute the command as many times as necessary. It is important to make sure that the dog does the tasks automatically, without reacting to the arising stimuli or distractions. The result of good training is a dog, obeying and fulfilling everything that the master says in any situation.
What to feed St. Bernard
Puppies eat 5-6 times a day, then they are fed 4 times, and already grown St. Bernard should eat twice - in the morning and in the evening. It is worthwhile to take this matter seriously, since the St. Bernards tend to recruit excess weight, and, in addition, their joints and bones need useful substances.
If the dog is obese, then it is transferred to a fractional food - the portion is reduced and divided into several receptions. With natural feeding, it is worth considering that food should be exclusively natural, and the following products are present in the diet:
- Meat - the daily norm for an adult dog is 400-500 grams of raw beef or veal.
- Byproducts - they are given 2-3 times a week, only boiled.
- Fish - it is a full-fledged product and it can be alternated with meat. Marine can be given raw, river - must boil.
- Bones - large bones and cartilaginous tissue - the source of useful substances necessary for the growth of such large animals.
- Fermented milk products - cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt, ryazhenka, etc. - without artificial additives and sugar.
- Vegetables - it is important to give them raw, cut into pieces. You can season with vegetable oils.
- Cereals are rice porridge, buckwheat, oatmeal. You can also mix several types of cereals, add vegetable oil, greens, vegetables, pieces of meat.
Cooking for such a large dog may not all, time and products required a lot, so often the owners prefer prefabricated rations. But it is worth considering that cheap, low-quality products will negatively affect the health of the pet. The food should meet the following requirements: its basis must be meat - rough protein makes up at least a third of the total volume, coarse fat - 18-22%, and fiber - at most 5%.
How to care for St. Bernard
A dog of this breed needs care , but in the usual procedures for four-legged pets. The coat has a special lubricant, which protects the pet from contamination. Therefore, you do not need to bathe it more than 1-2 times a year. In the bathing process, it is essential to use special shampoos with a neutral pH. After each walking it is desirable to wash the paws.
Wool is dense, because of its density, it can become entangled and form coils. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to comb it out once every 2-3 days, and for the pet it is better to conduct the procedure on a daily basis. It sheds the dog twice a year, during these periods the care for the coat should be more intense.
The eyes are the most problematic organ, therefore experts recommend removing the third eyelid from the puppy in order to avoid problems later. After the walk, you need to wipe your eyes gently, using a napkin. The ears should be inspected daily, and cleaned with soiled dirt with a cotton disc moistened with boiled water or a special antiseptic. Due to tight fit and closedness, the ears are a fertile place for infectious pathogens.
Teeth also require care. In order for the dog not to show a plaque, it should be treated regularly with bones or special products from the pet store. It is worth noting that the St. Bernards abundant salivation , so furniture and things can get dirty. You should periodically wipe the muzzle of dirt and adherent particles.
Twice a month you need to pay attention to the paws of the dog, if necessary, cutting off grown claws . The long coat that grows between the fingers must be trimmed. To the dog calmly treated such manipulations, it is important to teach him from an early age to hygienic procedures. Then in the future he will not resist and show discontent.
St. Bernards do not tolerate sharp temperature changes, so if the dog is kept on the street, then there must be a canopy. Do not leave the dog for a long time under the scorching rays. In addition, the dog can not permanently be in the street without communicating with the family - if everything is at home, then the dog should be with them!
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Photo of St. Bernard
Video about St. Bernard
The cost of a St. Bernard puppy
The breed is quite common and it's not difficult to get a thoroughbred puppy. Puppy from the hands without a pedigree (and without a guarantee of purebredness and health) will cost 4000-7000 rubles. Acquiring such a pet, all responsibility falls on the new owner. Puppy from the nursery with a pedigree, which will be an excellent friend of the family, costs about 10,000-15,000. It is not suitable for exhibitions and breeding because of small deviations from standard characteristics. In the rest it is a physically and mentally healthy animal.
The cost of a puppy from parents with good performance and good data, which, if not become a champion, but will definitely participate in the breeding, starts from 25,000 rubles. If you need a pet for an active exhibition career, then you need to take a kid of the highest - show class. The price in this case is 35000-50000 rubles.
Going for a puppy, it is necessary to decide whether a dog of a similar breed is suitable and for what purposes a pet is purchased. St. Bernard is a good-natured giant, an excellent option for a friendly family with children. But the dimensions oblige the owners to give maximum attention to training.