St. Bernards gained popularity all over the world, and cinema only fueled interest in the representatives of this breed. Dogs began to get everywhere, not very considering their features and large size. To whom do these giant dogs really fit, and what conditions are necessary for their comfortable maintenance?
- История происхождения породы 1. The history of the origin of the breed
- Описание породы сенбернар 2. Description of St. Bernard breed
- Характер и особенности социализации 3. The nature and characteristics of socialization
- Воспитание и дрессировка 4. Education and training
- Чем кормить сенбернара 5. How to feed St. Bernard
- Как ухаживать за сенбернаром 6. How to care for a St. Bernard
- Фото сенбернара 7. Photo of St. Bernard
- Видео о сенбернаре 8. Video about St. Bernard
- Стоимость щенка сенбернара 9. The cost of a St. Bernard puppy
- Питомники сенбернара 10. Kennels St. Bernard
The origin of the breed
The ancestors of the St. Bernards are dogs of the oldest breed - Tibetan mastiffs. In the 11th century, the monk Bernard in the Swiss Alps built a shelter for traveling people, which later became known as the monastery of St. Bernard. For more than one century, the monks have led large guard dogs here.
In the 18th century, the climatic conditions in these places changed, avalanches came off one after another, causing irreparable damage. St. Bernards began to be used as rescuers - they could find people under the rubble of the mountains.
The general recognition of this breed of dogs came only at the end of the 19th century. At the same time, the first breed standard was established. The St. Bernards consider Switzerland their native country, when the breed was approved, its representatives became national dogs.
Description of St. Bernard breed
One of the features of these dogs is their impressive size. The growth of males starts from 70 cm, but should not exceed 90 cm. The growth of females varies from 68 to 80 cm. As for weight a, the standard indicates a lower figure - 70 kg, weight more often exceeds 100 kg.
St. Bernards have a large, strong physique. Like most giants, representatives of this breed, unfortunately, have a short life, which ranges from 8 to 10 years. Also disadvantages include the mandatory operation to exclude the third century, since, growing, it becomes a breeding ground for infectious pathogens, and the dog will constantly suffer from eye diseases.
According to the classification, soft-haired and wire-haired dogs are distinguished, but their body structure is almost identical:
- The head of the St. Bernard is large, with a prominent forehead, on which wrinkles are located. Cheekbones high, eyes with moist eyelids, planted shallowly, brown iris. The nose is wide, large, nostrils are flat. The eyes have a black border, the same color in the animal's lips and nose. Muzzle shortened, the nose is a little blunt.
- The ears are small in size, hanging down, the back part lagging behind. The neck is strong, has a small suspension, the coat is a dense collar.
- The dog has a wide back that ends with a steep loin. The ribs are well visible.
- The tail is wide at the base, with a strong end, heavy.
- Limbs have a wide distribution, are massive, have large rounded legs, which have vaulted fingers.
Coat and color
In short-haired dogs, soft coat, tight to the body, with a well-developed undercoat. Feathers on paws are present, but they are mild. The tail is covered with elongated hair.
For long-haired representatives, straight, pointed hair is typical, the length is medium, the undercoat is excellent, dense. In the area of the hips and croup, it can be wavy. Pants moderate. In the area of the muzzle and ears, the coat is shortish. The coat covering the tail is thick, long, and the front legs are decorated with rich feathering.
The main color is white, on its background there are red-brown small or large spots, or a raincoat on the back and the body. A raincoat can be monophonic or in white markings - both are allowed by the standard. It is also possible yellowish-brown color. In addition, dark brown edging on the head is welcome. As for the dark spots on the body, their standard does not prohibit.
Representatives should have white markings in the chest, at the end of the tail, on the nose, collar area. White collar and masks with a symmetrical arrangement are highly valued.
The nature and characteristics of socialization
The size and sad look of the St. Bernard is somewhat confusing and it seems that he cannot possess high intellectual abilities. However, this dog is very smart and has the highest reaction rate - after all, these are rescue dogs that can make decisions without delay. But this applies to work, in the ordinary life of St. Bernard tries to save energy and does not move unnecessarily.
St. Bernards are excellent family dogs who adore all members, they try to protect them, to please and not to upset. Therefore, it is a pleasure to train dogs of this breed. They have one unique ability, transmitted at the level of genes - dogs are perfectly oriented in space. Pets can return home to the most severe places, having more than a dozen kilometers.
Life in the mountains has developed in these dogs the strength of spirit and strong character. They do not tend to panic. Despite the lazy, relaxed look, the St. Bernard is always ready to help, showing his physical and mental abilities. And they help not only the owner, but also those around him. These qualities are even in pets, which are not particularly trained and not raised.
Dogs are distinguished by good obedience, show stubbornness and excessive activity only at puppyhood. Saint Bernard necessarily need a family, he feels comfortable if he constantly communicates with people and other pets. Pet finds a common language with its relatives, feline and even ungulates. Left alone for a long time, the dog will be very sad and may even become depressed.
St. Bernard does not tend to aggressive behavior. When a smaller dog attacks a giant on a walk, then most likely he will not even pay attention to her. But in case of danger, for example, when attacking the owners, he will fight like a lion, and a man cannot defeat him. These dogs are great nannies, and their little owners allow almost everything. They can play the role of a horse, be a mattress, voluntarily put on a harness, and at the same time do not cease to protect.
Upbringing and training
St. Bernard has a lot of positive qualities almost from birth, but it does not mean that he does not need to be brought up. This should be done almost immediately, as soon as the baby crosses the threshold of the house. It is necessary to immediately show firmness and even a crying baby should not be picked up and not invited to the bed. Otherwise, it will be practically impossible to wean the huge “crumb” afterwards. To prohibit something that was once allowed is an impossible task.
Despite the large size, the dog does not take up much space - it is enough for him to have a bed on which it fits completely. Early socialization is important - it is worthwhile to introduce the child to public transport, crowded places, and parks. Later it will be much more difficult to control the behavior of the dog.
Dogs of this breed can be trained independently, but if there is no time or skills for this, it is better to turn to a professional. St. Bernard is a dog designed to help people, so it is important to show affection and trust - this is the basis of excellent relationships.
Dogs are not stubborn, so they will execute the command as many times as necessary. It is important to do so that the dog performs tasks automatically, without reacting to stimuli or distractions. The result of good dressing is a dog who obeys and performs everything that the master says in any situation.
How to feed the St. Bernard
Puppies eat 5-6 times a day, then they are fed 4 times, and already grown up St. Bernard should eat twice - in the morning and in the evening. It is necessary to take this issue seriously, since St. Bernards are prone to gaining extra weight, and, moreover, their joints and bones need useful substances.
If the dog is obese, then it is transferred to a fractional diet - the portion is reduced and divided into several receptions. When feeding naturally it is necessary to take into account that the food must be exclusively natural, and the following products are present in the diet:
- Meat - the daily rate for an adult dog is 400-500 grams of raw beef or veal.
- By-products - they are given 2-3 times a week, only boiled.
- Fish - it is a complete product and can be alternated with meat. Sea can be given raw, river - be sure to boil.
- Bones — large bones and cartilage tissue — are a source of nutrients necessary for the growth of such large animals.
- Dairy products - cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt, ryazhenka, etc. - without artificial additives and sugar.
- Vegetables - it is important to give them raw, cut into pieces. Can be seasoned with vegetable oils.
- Cereals - porridge from rice, buckwheat, oatmeal. You can also mix several types of cereals, add vegetable oil, herbs, vegetables, pieces of meat.
Not everyone can cook for such a big dog , a lot of time and products are needed, so owners often prefer ready-made rations. But it is worth considering that cheap, low-quality products will negatively affect the health of the pet. Food should meet the following requirements - meat should be its basis - coarse protein makes up at least one third of the total volume, coarse fat - 18-22%, and fiber - maximum 5%.
How to care for St. Bernard
A dog of this breed requires care , but as part of normal procedures for four-legged pets. The coat has a special lubricant that protects the pet from contamination. Therefore, it is required to bathe it no more than 1-2 times a year. In the process of bathing, be sure to use special shampoos with a neutral pH. After each walk, it is desirable to wash the paws.
The coat is thick, because of its thickness, it can become tangled and form mats. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to comb it once every 2-3 days, and for an apartment pet it is best to carry out the procedure daily. The dog sheds twice a year; during these periods, grooming should be more intensive.
The eyes are the most problematic organ, so experts recommend removing the third eyelid from the puppy to avoid problems later. After walking it is necessary to wipe your eyes gently with a napkin. Ears should be inspected daily and cleaned with a cotton pad moistened with boiled water or a special antiseptic when contaminated. Because of the snug fit and closure, the ears are a fertile place for infectious pathogens.
Teeth also require care. In order for the dog not to appear bloom, it should be regularly treated to bones or special products from the pet store. It is worth noting that the St. Bernards have excessive salivation , so the furniture and things can get dirty. It should be periodically cleaned face from dirt and adhering particles.
Twice a month, you need to pay attention to the paws of the dog, cutting off the growing claws if necessary. Long hair that grows between the fingers must be cut. To the dog calmly related to such manipulations, it is important to teach him from an early age to hygienic procedures. Then in the future he will not resist and show discontent.
St. Bernards do not tolerate sharp temperature drops, so if a dog is kept on the street, then there must be a canopy. You can not leave the dog for a long time under the scorching rays. In addition, the dog can not always be in street conditions without communicating with the family - if everything is at home, then the dog should be with them!
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Photo of St. Bernard
Video about St. Bernard
St. Bernard puppy cost
The breed is quite common and to acquire a pedigree puppy is not difficult. Puppy with hands without pedigree (and without guarantees of pure breed and health) will cost 4000-7000 rubles. By purchasing such a pet, all responsibility falls on the new owner. A puppy from a nursery with a pedigree that will be a great friend of the family costs about 10,000-15,000. It is not suitable for exhibitions and breeding due to small deviations from standard characteristics. Otherwise, it is a healthy physically and mentally animal.
The cost of a puppy from parents with good performance and good data, which, if it does not become a champion, but will definitely participate in breeding, starts at 25,000 rubles. If you need a pet for an active show career, then you need to take the baby of the highest - show class. The price in this case is 35000-50000 rubles.
Going for a puppy, you should decide whether a dog of this breed is suitable and for what purpose a pet is purchased. St. Bernard is a good-natured giant, a great option for a friendly family with children. But the dimensions require owners to pay maximum attention to learning.