Ticks carry a large number of dangerous diseases, among which tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, recurrent typhoid, spotted fever and babesiosis. In dogs, the bite of an ixodid mite causes babesiosis of dogs or pyroplasmosis. Dogs and all dogs are intermediate hosts of Babesia canis. Animals become infected during the period of ticks activity with the appearance of the first green.
- Зачем прививают собак? 1. Why are dogs vaccinated?
- Виды и характеристика вакцин 2. Types and characteristics of vaccines
- Правила и схема вакцинации 3. Rules and scheme of vaccination
- Требования к прививаемому животному и противопоказания 4. Requirements to the vaccinated animal and contraindications
- Возможные побочные эффекты 5. Possible side effects
Why are dogs vaccinated?
Pyroplasmosis is a serious disease, which is accompanied by a special anemia - "hemolytic anemia". Babesia canis, penetrating the dog's blood from the saliva of the carrier-tick, penetrates into the red blood cells and, reproducing, destroys them. If you do not start treatment on time, the dog dies in 4-5 days from the time the first symptoms appear.
The disease is treated for a long time, and after the treatment, the animal has complications in the form of kidney failure, liver disease, heart failure, anemia. Warn disease is always better than treating it. Therefore, scientists have developed a special vaccine against pyroplasmosis.
Types and characteristics of vaccines
Currently, two types of babesiosis vaccines have been developed:
- Pyrodog , produced by Merial;
- Nobivak Piro , produced by Intervet.
Pirodog is released from the red blood cells of dogs infected with pyroplasmosis. For the drug, they are subjected to disinfection with gamma radiation. Nobivac Pyro is a bivalent vaccine against 2 strains of babesia - Babesia canis + Babesia rossi. It contains antigens and inactivated babesia.
Pirodog and Nobivac Pyro contain two antigens - somatic Ag, which are contained on the membrane of babesias and soluble parasitic antigens (RPA), which appear during the decay of erythrocytes. It is the RPA that causes:
- relaxation of smooth muscles in the walls of blood vessels and increase their permeability;
- adhesion of erythrocytes and formation of blood clots;
- destruction of erythrocytes (hemolysis);
- formation of immune complexes.
When the vaccine is introduced into the dog's body, antibodies to the introduced antigens are produced. Since babesia parasitizes inside blood cells, antibodies to somatic antigens are useless - they can not penetrate into red blood cells. Antibodies neutralize predominantly RPA, which reduces the severity of symptoms and provides an easier flow of pyroplasmosis in the event of infection. Thus, the vaccine does not destroy the intracellular parasite, but only alleviates the condition of the dog.
If the vaccination scheme is complied with, Merial claims that Pyrodog forms immunity to Babesia for a period of at least 1 year. This is a big plus, since if earlier the period of ticks activity was in spring and autumn, then cases of pyroplasmosis in winter are registered.
The dual vaccine Nobivak Piro provides heterologous protection against all types of Babesia canis canis (types A and B, type 34.01, type Robin), since the immunity to the most dangerous babesia rossi strain protects the animal from Babesia canis canis.
Rules and scheme of vaccination
Nobivak Piro and Pirodog are produced in 2 bubbles:
- vaccine - dry porous mass of a reddish-pink color;
- solvent - sterile phosphate-buffered colorless solution.
The solvent is drawn into the syringe. In the vial of the vaccine, after removing the previously vacuum, a solution is introduced along the wall, avoiding the destruction of the lyophilizate. You can not shake the bottle. He is carefully placed and waited until the vaccine completely dissolves. This process takes no more than 3-5 minutes. The resulting ready-made vaccine is collected in a syringe and injected to the animal subcutaneously.
To form a stable immunity, the dog is grafted according to the following scheme:
- Start vaccination - the first dose of the vaccine is introduced 2 months before the start of the tick activity season.
- The second vaccination is performed in 3-6 weeks. In order to form a stable protection against babesiosis, it should take 3-4 weeks. Until then, the animal is not considered protected. The duration of the second dose of the vaccine is 6 months.
- In order that the dog does not get sick, it is vaccinated every 6 months.
The manufacturer fills the vaccine in cardboard boxes at 1 dose (vaccine + diluent), 5 and 10 doses.
Requirements for the vaccinated animal and contraindications
The vaccine is given only to healthy dogs. Vaccine Pirodog is recommended to be administered to puppies no earlier than five months old, and Nivivac Piro - from 6 months. Before the animal is vaccinated, it is necessary to conduct its de-worming. When signs of pyroplasmosis appear, it is necessary to first treat the disease, and it is recommended to vaccinate only 2 weeks after the complete recovery of the animal.
It should not be vaccinated at the same time with several types of vaccines against various diseases, as well as taking antibiotics, sulfonamides and other medications. Vaccination against pyroplasmosis is not done:
- pregnant and lactating dogs.
Possible side effects
Both vaccines have been clinically tested and are completely safe, subject to the rules of administration, preparation and design. In single animals, there may be some side effects, such as:
- slight swelling at the injection site;
- a slight increase in temperature.
All side effects, as a rule, pass independently for 4-14 days. If the vaccinated dog is infected with pyroplasmosis, then the characteristic symptoms of the disease appear:
- low-grade fever;
- change gait;
- refusal of food.
When these symptoms persist longer than 2-3 days, you should immediately contact a vet clinic for symptomatic treatment. In order to protect the dog from possible infection, you can additionally use special collars or drops from ticks.
Before vaccinating a dog against ticks, it is necessary to consult a veterinarian to take into account the individual characteristics of the dog's organism and the possible risks of the vaccination procedure.