Given the mobility and activity of friends of our quadrupeds, no wonder that they often get injured. In addition, often it contributes to the carelessness of owners and lack of care, leading to a number of diseases. In any case, a fracture in a dog is a rather complex pathology, and in some cases critical, requiring special treatment and medical care.
What kind of fractures do dogs have?
First of all, such injuries are divided into two types, based on their origin:
- Traumatic fractures - the causes of their appearance are associated with the impact of external factors.
- Pathological fractures - they arise because of animal pathologies, and external factors do not significantly affect - for example, a dog with osteoporosis can get a fracture, having jumped off unsuccessfully even from the couch.
There are also several types of fractures that differ in severity and other factors:
- A crack in the bone is the easiest form of fracture, which can not be detected without special diagnosis. The behavior of the animal does not change, only the dog begins to move more cautiously if the paw bone is damaged. If the crack on the rib or spine, the pet tries to avoid contact, while trying to stroke it, he shuns to the side. Despite the ease of this pathology, there is always the risk of complications. For example, if a limping pet starts to train, then with an awkward movement, the bone in the crack area may not bear the load and then the pet faces a more serious fracture. Once the dog has become limp, it is necessary to take her to a veterinary clinic and take an X-ray. Only this way it is possible to find out whether the usual bruise is in the animal or whether a crack has formed in the bone.
- A fractured fracture is a more serious pathological condition than the previous type, requiring obligatory attention and therapy. Quite often, this damage requires surgery. In this case, we are not talking about severe damage to internal tissues, there is an independent fixation of the bone, but the animal needs timely help, since the dog can become worse in the first hours after getting injured. The most common cause of the punctured fracture is the jump of the dog from a height, when landing, the entire mass of the body is transferred to the front paws. Often occur in representatives of large and giant breeds, as well as puppies, whose bones are not yet fully formed and have not grown stronger.
- Closed fracture, not burdened with bone displacement - in this case, the damaged bone remains in place, without moving. This type of injury is considered severe, as it often causes increased fever, swelling and hyperemia at the site of injury. With this damage, there are obvious symptoms that allow you to seek medical help in a timely manner, without waiting for possible complications.
- Closed type, accompanied by displacement - the symptomatology is similar to the previous case, but in this case the bone leaves its normal location. A similar phenomenon is easy to detect, since the bone rests on the skin. This type of injury is dangerous in that it can lead to internal bleeding and other complications.
- Open - a complex pathology, as a result of which there are significant damage to both internal and external tissues. Detect the trauma is not difficult, because the bone fragments break through the skin and stick outward.
In addition to the above varieties of fractures in dogs, there are other injuries. One of the most difficult is a fracture of the spine, accompanied by serious pathological conditions. Most often, the lesion touches the thoracic or lumbar region. Also, dogs often diagnosed with a hip fracture, the symptom of which is similar to a closed fracture and the animal feels severe pain.
I wonder how to cut the claws of a dog .
Symptoms of fractures in dogs
Naturally, the signs of fractures in dogs depend on the type of injury, but paws usually suffer. In this case, the following symptoms are possible:
- the pet moves, not leaning on one of the paws;
- since the dog feels pain in the injured limb, when trying to examine or feel the paw, the dog can pull it off, scream, clench its teeth and even bite the hand;
- often in the place of damage, a strong puffiness develops and a hematoma appears;
- The paw with a fracture is deprived of symmetry in relation to the second, healthy, limb;
- Through a skin the piece of a bone (at the closed fracture with displacement) is visible.
Fracture of the spine has its own, severe signs - the dog ceases to feel the hind legs, can not get up on them (except for the damage to the sacrum, the dog can get up and move), the physiological processes are broken - the dog can not normally empty, urination may be difficult or involuntary and etc.
If the dog broke his jaw, the pet can not eat, the pain is felt with any movement of the jaw, perhaps the asymmetry of the muzzle.
Read also: how painless to put the dog to sleep .
As is known, at times much depends on rendering first aid, including life of an animal, therefore it is extremely important to conduct an event correctly:
- Fixation of the jaw . This can be done with a muzzle or by wrapping the dog's muzzle with a normal bandage. This should be done even in a situation where the pet does not show aggression and behaves peacefully. After all, with any touch, which in the future is inevitable, the dog can inadvertently, by the pain of shock, bite people who are helping him.
- Fixing the injured area . This event is held as required. If there are signs of a fracture, then you should not feel the damaged area. When injuring the ribs, using a wide bandage or strips of tissue, the chest of the animal is rewound. The bandage should be tight, but it compresses the bone and does not obstruct the breathing. If there was a trauma to the limb, then it is superimposed on the tire from improvised materials. Fracture of the jaw is dangerous because there is a possibility of tongue sagging or difficulty breathing, which arises from the accumulation of blood in the throat. In this case, it is necessary to clean the respiratory tract, but it must be done very carefully to avoid the displacement of the broken bone. It is recommended to fix the jaw by means of a frame - wire and a usual bandage can be used. But if you can get to the medical institution in 5-10 minutes, then you should not waste precious time building special fixing devices. Veterinarians warn that one should not try to correct the situation on their own, trying to put the bone back into place!
- Accurate transportation . Transport the pet by applying a gentle position, which is chosen based on the nature of the damage. The dog should be planted or placed in such a way as to minimize the load from the broken portion of the bone. Puppy or small dog (for more comfortable transportation) can be placed in a rigid carry . With symptoms indicating a fracture of the vertebral column, you should be as cautious as possible. If possible, the veterinarian should be called home or an ambulance team that exists in many veterinary clinics. Their cars have all the necessary equipment to transport a seriously injured animal. Before the arrival of physicians it is worthwhile to try, so that the dog does not move and maintain its original position. If this is not possible, then you can put the pet on a hard surface, for example, a sheet of plywood and fix it with bandages. This same device is suitable for transporting a wounded animal to the clinic, if other options are not available.
If the trauma leads to bleeding, then stop it, applying a tourniquet or a tight bandage slightly above the injury.
Treatment of fractures in dogs by specialists
The therapy of cracks and closed fractures without displacement is carried out with the help of conservative methods. This is if the paw, tail, or rib is damaged. In this case, the dog is provided with rest, tires or supporting dressings are applied.
If a connection of fragments or parts of the bone is required, an operation called osteosynthesis is performed. Various devices (Elizarova, Kirshnera), polymers, knitting needles and so on, depending on the damage, the size of the pet and other factors can be used for its carrying out. With this surgical intervention, reliable fixation is performed, and bone tissues quickly and correctly fuse.
The situation looks more complicated if a vertebral column, pelvic bone or skull fracture is diagnosed. In this case, everything resolves the severity of the pathology and the results of the diagnosis. Specialists try their best to unite and fix the damaged bone, and the owners of the dog have an equally important mission - to ensure all conditions for the prompt adhesion of bone tissue. The pet should not receive loads and most of the time be at rest.