Dogs, although they have better health than people, are still ill, including serious infectious diseases, for example, parvovirus enteritis. The virus that causes it develops at lightning speed and is very dangerous for four-legged friends. Therefore, the owner should know how parvovirus enteritis appears in dogs and what to do to help the pet.
- Причины заболевания 1. Causes of the disease
- Симптомы парвовирусного энтерита у собак 2. Symptoms of parvovirus enteritis in dogs
- Диагностика энтерита 3. Diagnosis of enteritis
- Лечение инфекции 4. Treatment of infection
- Интенсивные инфузионные процедуры 5. Intensive infusion procedures
- Использование антибактериальных средств 6. Use of antibacterial agents
- Препараты, способные нейтрализовать эндотоксические вещества 7. Preparations capable of neutralizing endotoxic substances
- Средства с противорвотным действием 8. Means with antiemetic action
- Коррекция питания 9. Power correction
Causes of the disease
The causative agent of the infection is a virus from the Parvovirus family, there are 2 types:
- I type - found in feces of healthy animals and does not differ pathogenicity.
- II type - contains DNA, has no shell, has high resistance to physical and chemical effects.
The main source of the causative agent of infection is the stool of infected dogs. It is believed that the virus with feces is released within a week and a half, and the maximum amount, the most dangerous for infection, reaches on the 5th day.
Also within 2-12 days the virus can be in the emetic mucosa. Due to the fact that the pathogen is resistant to various threatening factors and has the ability to remain in the environment for a long time, it can be dangerous for several months.
In some cases, with a small dose of the virus that has got into the animal's body, the disease proceeds without pronounced signs. With a large amount of it, symptoms that are characteristic of parvovirus enteritis occur.
Sick animals excrete viruses within 14-21 days after infection, and even after the cure they are long contagious. The causative agent is able to persist for a long time on the coat, the paws of the dog, which is very dangerous for pets who have not been vaccinated.
The virus can be transmitted as follows:
- during the contact of a sick animal with healthy cousins;
- through care items - a bowl, toys, combs, etc .;
- through food;
- through soil containing contaminated feces;
- a dog can get infected from a person who is a carrier of the virus - often the owners bring it on shoes and outer clothing.
Most of the infectious agent enters the animal through the nasal (intranasal) or oral (oral) cavity. The peak of the spread of parvovirus infection occurs in late spring-summer and from October to March.
Experts in the process of clinical studies have not established a relationship between susceptibility to disease and breed and gender of dogs, but only with age. Most often, puppies fall ill 2-12 months.
Symptoms of parvovirus enteritis in dogs
The disease is insidious, as it can be accompanied by a wide variety of symptoms, which complicates its diagnosis. And sometimes the signs of infection are very weakly expressed, and the owner does not even suspect that his dog is seriously ill. In the case of this pathology, from early detection and timely treatment depends not only on health, but also on the life of the dog.
To notice the primary manifestations of the disease, the owner should pay more attention to the pet, noticing even a slight change in behavior. With any signs you can not hesitate, you should immediately deliver the dog to the veterinary clinic.
Symptoms of parvovirus may include the following conditions:
- Lethargy . The dog becomes less active, and even walks and favorite games do not cause the former joy. The dog may not react to the actions around him, rarely gets up.
- Increased body temperature . The indicator above 39 ° C signals the development of an infectious disease. But there is one nuance - sometimes with enteritis, the temperature can rise even before the very death of the pet, so pay attention to other signs of the disease.
- Pain symptomatology . The incubation period for parvovirus is 5-10 days. And if the animal starts to buckle its back while stroking, and during the touch to the stomach area it tries to move away, then the pet is experiencing pain - this is the first manifestation of the disease.
- Emetic urges . This symptom occurs only a day after the incubation period. Initially, vomitive masses consist of the remains of undigested food, later become grayish mucus.
- Diarrhea . Feces are liquid, first yellowish or greenish in color, later red.
The ill pet refuses to eat, does not drink, the body quickly loses moisture, which threatens rapid dehydration. Due to excruciating pain and developed heart failure, a disease in 2-3 days can lead to death.
Diagnosis of enteritis
When a four-legged patient with signs of parvoviral enteritis enters the vet clinic, the doctor immediately attempts to establish a preliminary diagnosis. Sudden development of the pathological condition, vomiting, diarrhea with blood, dehydration are the main symptoms of parvovirus.
In addition, the infection almost always causes an increase in mesenteric lymph nodes, which can be detected with the help of palpation. For more accurate diagnosis, the veterinarian assigns a number of laboratory tests:
- The PCR method (polymerase chain reaction) is an effective method of detecting a pathogen in the stool of a sick animal;
- RGA (haemagglutination reaction) - reveals the antigen of the pathogen;
- RGTA - analysis identifying the causative agent;
- electronic microscopy - studying the stool of a sick animal;
- histology - applied posthumously, detects tissue necrosis, a critical decrease in lymphocytes in the small intestine.
In modern veterinary medicine, ELISA, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, has often been used, considering it to be a more informative and reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus in dogs.
Important for accurate diagnosis are differential methods. The specialist should distinguish parvovirus from other kinds of enteritis - alimentary, caused by pathogenic bacteria, toxins.
Treatment of infection
First of all, the dog needs urgent medical help, but if at the same time there is no possibility to call a doctor or take the dog to the clinic, then the owner needs the following:
- it is important to ensure the dog complete rest, not to give him water and food;
- You can not do the enema yourself unless the veterinarian recommended it;
- you can give the dog a little vaseline or any vegetable oil (the first is more effective), it is not absorbed into the walls of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, but envelops them and promotes the elimination of toxic substances.
Owners of dogs are advised to pre-form a home veterinary first-aid kit so that they have everything they need for primary care:
- several syringes of different volumes (5-20 ml) and removable needles to them;
- analgesics and antispasmodics - No-shpa (Drotaverin), Analgin; it is best to have ampoules for injections, since parvovirus is accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, and the tablets will not be absorbed by the body of the sick animal;
- Sulfocamphocaine, Cordiamin - drugs that support the work of the heart.
Such measures are suitable only for short-term care and will not completely cure the animal of parvovirus enteritis. Veterinarians in this case use a comprehensive approach.
Intensive infusion procedures
First of all, the animal loses a lot of moisture, it is required to fill the deficit and compensate for its subsequent loss. For this purpose, droppers with balanced crystalloid solutions are administered.
The doctor approximately determines the volume of the lost fluid and assigns a double amount. This allows you to normalize the balance and avoid serious complications. Often, experts prescribe the product Normosol (Normosol), which adds a solution of potassium salt of hydrochloric acid.
It is important to monitor the amount of glucose in the blood and, when required, add this component to the infusion fluid. To correct persistent hypokalemia (a lower concentration of potassium ions), some magnesium salt of hydrochloric acid is added to the infusion solution.
Use of antibacterial agents
Specialists recommend parenteral (bypassing the gastrointestinal tract) method of administration of these drugs, as parvovirus is prescribed antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action that are capable of destroying the protective shell of the intestinal mucosa, which increases the risk of sepsis.
Often, veterinarians prescribe injections of Gentamicin and Ampicillin, with an 8-hour interval, but consider that aminoglycosides have renal toxicity.
Some doctors, if the dog does not detect neutropenia or febrile condition, recommend drugs from a number of cephalosporins of the first generation, and the previous combination is used when there are signs of sepsis.
Preparations that can neutralize endotoxic substances
Their dog is given during antibiotic therapy to speed up the process of excretion of endotoxins and to exclude the deterioration of the patient's condition. In addition, the drugs in this group reduce the likelihood of septic shock.
Medicines are diluted with saline and injected with a dropper, for half an hour or two.
Means with antiemetic action
Prescribe metoclopramide, but do not forget about caution, since an adequate rehydration is required in advance to exclude the risk of severe hypotension.
Such drugs are needed when, due to prolonged profuse vomiting, it is impossible to maintain the water-electrolyte balance.
No less important aspect, which affects the results of therapy. First of all, at the first signs of parvovirus infection the owner should stop feeding and watering the pet. To be on a hungry diet, the dog should at least 2-3 days.
Vodichku little can be given to the dog only a day after the vomiting has stopped. After the pet they start to feed with food, frayed into gruel. Food should be divided - initially food is given in small portions, every 2-2.5 hours.
As the first dishes for the sick dog, rice decoction, broth from chicken breast, decoction of flaxseed is suitable. If the dog does not approach the bowl or does not have the strength to eat on its own, then it is possible to gently introduce liquid food into the mouth using a syringe.
Gradually, other foods are introduced into the diet - one per day. You can give the pet a crushed egg, vermicelli, diluted with chicken broth.
The recovering animal needs carbohydrate food, which replenishes the energy resources of the body. Also, the dog is recommended 2-3 times a week to give lean fish in boiled form, separated from bones, preferably sea.
To normalize the intestinal microflora are useful dairy products - kefir, yogurt, fermented baked milk, yoghurt, but they should not contain sugar and artificial additives.
At the beginning of recovery, it is not necessary to give meat to the pet, especially raw meat. Also not the best products are milk, fatty, pickled, salted food, spices and condiments.
To protect the pet from such a dangerous disease, it is worthwhile to take care of regular vaccination. In addition, it is important to ensure good conditions of detention and adequate nutrition to the dog.
Parvovirus infection can kill an animal in a couple of days, especially for puppies, so preventive measures are required, and if the infection does occur, the veterinarian's timely professional help. Only this way you can help your four-footed friend.