In humans, the occurrence of papillomas is not a rare occurrence, moreover, experts believe that from 70 to 95% of the population are carriers of the causative agent of this disease. But this pathology arises not only in humans, but also in the friends of our tetrapods. Naturally, here we are talking about a slightly different form of the disease. In addition, papillomas in dogs appear much less frequently. How is the disease manifested in pets, and is it dangerous?
What are papillomas
Papillomas or fibropapillomas, and in a simple way - warts, in fact, are specific tumor formations, most often benign.
There are several types of neoplasms, some prone to malignancy, for example, squamous papilloma. Although this happens quite rarely, there are still registered cases in veterinary practice.
The causative agents of papilloma in dogs are various representatives of the Papillomavirus family. Neoplasms can occur on almost any surface of the body, most often they appear on the muzzle or in the oral cavity.
Specific tissue growth can look different: like reddish nodules, warts with uneven edges, brownish growths, etc. There are no clear criteria here. In some animals, only one papilloma appears, in others they spread throughout the body, and still others manage to avoid such a pathology. What is the reason for this difference?
Experts have not yet been able to identify the exact cause of the development of papollomavirus, but the weak or mature dog’s immune system is considered a fundamental factor.
In addition, the results of scientific studies have shown that some breeds have a genetic predisposition to this disease. These include the following breeds:
- Cocker Spaniel;
- Toy Terrier;
- miniature schnauzer.
Veterinarians warn that long-term therapy with corticosteroid drugs also refers to predisposing factors. In young animals, the risks of contracting human papillomavirus are higher than in puppies or elderly individuals.
Another nuance - viruses from the family of papillomaviruses are infectious to other representatives of the species. So any contact with infected brethren can cause the development of the disease. In addition, the virus can be transmitted through various care items if not treated.
The causative agents of the disease are quite stable and can persist for a long time in the external environment. Naturally, a person is interested in the question: is this pathogen dangerous for people? No, it is too species-specific, therefore it is dangerous only for animals of this species.
The incubation period can be from 1 week to 2 months, from the moment it enters the body. Neoplasms can suddenly disappear within a few months, but often they remain on the skin for a long time or even a lifetime.
Symptoms of the disease
Primary signs of papillomavirus occur in individuals up to 4 years of age. Often, neoplasms are localized on the lips, and if the disease is not treated, then they begin to spread to the mucous mouth. In some cases, tumors occur on the surface of the pharynx.
At the initial stage of development, rounded papules have a smooth, even surface, pinkish in color. Gradually, the growth of cells occurs, and the formation turns into large "warts" with uneven edges.
Progressing, the pathology manifests itself in the form of single tumors on the skin of the eyelids, ocular conjunctiva and other skin integuments. In veterinary practice, there are a number of cases where the disease affected the mucous surface of the esophagus and the skin around the nose.
Multiple rashes on the mucous jaws complicate the process of eating, chewing and swallowing is accompanied by pain. The owner can detect bloody traces on the pet’s food, the dog begins to refuse to eat solid foods, begins to lose weight.
When tumor formations acquire impressive dimensions, the jaws of the dog stop closing, the papillomas are injured and can become infected by various pathogens. Therefore, often bacterial or fungal diseases join papillomatosis.
Papillomas can pass without special treatment, if you improve the health status of the pet and adjust the diet and diet. But if such events did not lead to a positive result, and warts continue to complicate the life of the animal, causing pain and discomfort, then veterinary care will be required.
After examination, the doctor selects the most suitable surgical method to remove the neoplasm. There are several methods of surgical intervention. These include the following:
- cryosurgery - a technique in which the effect of low temperatures is used, that is, freezing;
- papilloma excision with a surgical scalpel;
- electrocoagulation - warts are removed by current;
- laser ablation.
The first three interventions are performed under local anesthesia. More often the veterinarian removes papillomas with a scalpel, as the technique is considered affordable, reliable and safe. Laser therapy is used to remove large growths or warts that appear in areas that are difficult to access.
In most cases, dogs in the following categories need surgery:
- animals under 4 years of age;
- older pets over 10 years old;
- puppies up to 12 months old;
- dogs with weakened immune systems, regardless of age.
In pharmacies, you can find various means for self-disposal of papillomas, but it is not recommended to use them without consulting a veterinarian. Even the seemingly harmless means that are practiced in traditional medicine can cause an ordinary wart to turn into a malignant tumor.
In addition to surgical intervention, drug therapy of papillomatosis is carried out. With its help, you can achieve remission of the disease after 2 weeks of treatment. It is worth noting that some drugs from this ailment can cause serious side effects, so only a veterinarian can prescribe them and determine the dosage and regimen.
External drugs and intravenous novocaine injections are also prescribed. There are methods to prevent the development of the disease, for this you can vaccinate a pet. In addition, it is important to take care of proper nutrition and good living conditions for the four-legged companion.
Watch a video about papillomas in dogs:
In the absence of therapy, severe consequences develop that can occur against the background of the formation of papillomas:
- animals with low immunity are at high risk of degeneration of the papilloma into a cancerous tumor;
- dogs with strong immunity become carriers of infection, while not becoming ill themselves;
- in aging and weakened dogs, the previously introduced virus can activate and cause the disease;
- damaged warts become an excellent place for the penetration of pathogens;
- surgical removal of papillomas sometimes causes their active growth and distribution.
Papillomas appear in dogs not so often, but they can still worsen the condition of the pet. What will not allow the virus to seriously harm the body is a strong immunity, excellent health, activity and proper nutrition. With a predisposition to the disease, you should think about vaccinating your pet - nevertheless, preventing the disease is easier than treating it.