People have the appearance of papillomas is not a rare phenomenon, moreover, experts believe that 70 to 95% of the population are carriers of the causative agent of this disease. But this pathology arises not only in man, but also in the friends of our four-footed. Naturally, here we are talking about a slightly different form of the disease. In addition, papillomas in dogs appear much less often. How does the disease manifest in pets, and is it dangerous?
What is papilloma
Papillomas or fibropapillomas, and in a simple way - warts, in fact, are specific tumor formations, most often of benign nature.
There are several types of neoplasms, some are prone to malignancy, for example, squamous cell papilloma. Although this happens quite rarely, but still there are registered cases in veterinary practice.
The causative agents of papilloma in dogs are various representatives of the family of papillomaviruses. Neoplasms can occur on almost any surface of the body, most often they appear on the muzzle or in the mouth.
The specific growth of tissues can look different: reddish nodules, warts with uneven edges, brownish growths, etc. There are no clear criteria. In some animals, only one papilloma appears, in others they spread throughout the body, and the third manages to avoid such a pathology. What is the reason for this difference?
Experts have not yet been able to identify the exact cause of the development of papillomavirus, but the weak or mature immune system of the dog is considered to be the main factor.
In addition, the results of scientific research have shown that some breeds have a genetic predisposition to this disease. These include the following breeds:
- Cocker Spaniel;
- Toy Terrier;
Veterinarians warn that prolonged therapy with corticosteroids also applies to predisposing factors. In young animals, the risk of getting infected with papillomavirus is higher than in puppies or elderly individuals.
Another nuance - viruses from the family of papillomaviruses are contagious for other species. So any contact with infected brethren can lead to the development of the disease. In addition, the virus can be transmitted through various care items, if not processed.
The causative agents of the disease are quite stable and can persist for a long time in the external environment. Naturally, a person is interested in the question: is this pathogen dangerous for people? No, it is too species-specific, therefore it is dangerous only for animals of this species.
The incubation period can be from 1 week to 2 months, from the moment when it enters the body. Neoplasms can suddenly disappear within a few months, but often they remain on the skin for a long time or even a lifetime.
Symptoms of the disease
Primary signs of papillomavirus occur in individuals up to 4 years of age. Often neoplasms are localized on the lips, and if the disease is not treated, then they begin to spread to the mucous membrane. In some cases, tumors occur on the surface of the pharynx.
At the initial stage of development rounded papules have a smooth, even surface, a pinkish hue. Gradually, the cells grow and the formations turn into large "warts" with uneven edges.
Progressing, pathology manifests itself in the form of single tumors on the skin of the eyelids, the eye conjunctiva and other skin integuments. In veterinary practice, there are a number of cases where the disease affected the mucous surface of the esophagus and the skin around the nose.
Multiple eruptions on the mucous mouth complicate the process of food intake, chewing and swallowing is accompanied by pain. The owner can detect spotting on the pet's food, the dog begins to refuse to eat solid foods, begins to lose weight.
When the tumor formations acquire impressive dimensions, the jaw ceases to form in the dog, the papillomas are injured and can become infected with various pathogens of infections. Therefore, often papillomatosis is associated with bacterial or fungal diseases.
Papillomas can be treated without special treatment if the pet's health is improved and the diet and diet are adjusted. But if such measures did not lead to a positive result, and warts continue to complicate the life of the animal, causing pain and discomfort, then veterinary assistance will be required.
After the examination, the doctor chooses the most suitable surgical method for removing the tumor. There are several ways of surgical intervention. These include the following:
- cryosurgery is a technique in which low temperatures are used, that is, freezing;
- excising the papilloma with a surgical scalpel;
- electrocoagulation - warts are removed by current;
- removal of laser formation.
The first three interventions are performed under the influence of local anesthesia. More often the vet removes papillomas with a scalpel, since the technique is considered accessible, reliable and safe. Laser therapy is used to remove large growths or warts that appear in areas that are difficult to access.
In most cases, dogs need the following categories:
- animals up to 4 years of age;
- older pets over 10 years old;
- Puppies up to 12 months;
- dogs with a weakened immune system, regardless of age.
In pharmacies, you can find various means for self-disposal of papillomas, but it is not recommended to use them without consulting a veterinarian. Even innocuous, at first glance, funds that are practiced in folk medicine, can cause a normal wart to turn into a malignant tumor.
In addition to surgical intervention, medicamental therapy of papillomatosis is carried out. With its help it is possible to achieve remission of the disease after 2 weeks of treatment. It is worth noting that some drugs for this disease can cause serious side effects, so appoint them and determine the dosage and pattern of use can only be a veterinarian.
Also, external funds and intravenous injections of novocaine are additionally prescribed. There are methods to prevent the development of the disease, for this you can vaccinate the pet. In addition, it is important to take care of proper nutrition and good conditions for keeping a four-legged companion.
Watch a video about papillomas in dogs:
In the absence of therapy, severe consequences develop that can occur when papillomas are formed:
- in animals with low immunity there are high risks of degeneration of papilloma into a cancer tumor;
- dogs with strong immunity become carriers of infection, while not getting sick themselves;
- in aging and weakened dogs, the previously introduced virus is able to activate and cause disease;
- damaged warts are an excellent place to penetrate pathogens;
- Rapid removal of papillomas sometimes causes their active growth and spread.
Papillomas appear in dogs not so often, but nevertheless they can worsen a condition of the pet. That will not allow the virus to seriously harm the body, so it's strong immunity, excellent health, activity and proper nutrition. If you are predisposed to a disease, you should think about vaccinating your pet - it is easier to prevent the disease than to treat it.