Animals, especially small ones, are very curious and mobile, so they often become victims of accidents. Burns in dogs are possible in the house and for a walk. Therefore, the owner of the animal needs to know how to act if the pet is burned.
- Причины ожогов у собаки 1. Causes of burns in a dog
- Степень поражения и симптомы 2. Degree of defeat and symptoms
- Лечение ожогов различной этиологии 3. Treatment of burns of different etiologies
- Первая помощь животному 4. First aid to an animal
- Медикаментозное лечение 5. Medication
- Оперативное лечение 6. Surgical treatment
Causes of burns in a dog
Burns from a dog can cause:
- high temperature (boiling water, flame, steam, incandescent objects);
- chemical substances (acid, alkali, alkali metal salts);
- radiation radiation (solar);
- corrosive biological substances (juice of poisonous plants).
Thermal burns can be caused by various thermal factors. The degree of damage depends on the temperature, the duration of the impact, the area of the lesion. So, for example, if the dog was infiltrated with boiling water, the exposure time is not more than a few seconds. Therefore, burns from boiling water, as a rule, are of the I-II degree and do not threaten life. Severe, and sometimes deadly, burns with boiling liquid the dog can get if its effect is long or occupy a large area of the body, for example, if the animal falls into boiling water.
Heavy burns cause an open flame, as there are three factors - hot particles falling on the skin and wool, heat radiation and hot air. If the wool has inflamed, until it is extinguished, the skin will be affected, affecting not only the upper layers, but also deeper - subcutaneous tissue, and sometimes muscles, bones. Burns from an open flame are the heaviest and often lead to painful shock and death of the animal.
Chemicals with a high degree of detriment in the household are rare. But even a pipe cleaner, bleach or plate cleaner can cause a dog to have a severe chemical burn, especially if it comes into the eyes, on the nasal mucosa or mouth. Acids rarely cause a strong degree of damage, because due to protein coagulation in the surface layer does not allow penetrating the acid deep into. Much more severe burns cause alkalis.
Electric burns often receive puppies, gnawing everything, including wires. With electric shock, the area of the burn is small, but it is very deep, as the electricity in the body spreads through the most electrically conductive media - biological fluids, cerebrospinal fluid, muscles. The skin has a lower electrical conductivity.
Radiation exposure can be caused by both ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Burns from radiation damage in dogs practically do not occur. From the sunlight most often suffer animals that do not have a thick coat of wool - bald breeds of dogs or short-haired light colored. At them influence of direct solar beams can cause a combustion I, less often II degrees. A burn from the infrared radiation of a dog can get from a hot radiator battery, a fireplace.
Corrosive plant juice, for example, cowweed, cleansing caustic, cayenne pepper can cause a severe burn of the mucosa of the mouth and eyes.
Degree of defeat and symptoms
Burns in dogs are classified according to several characteristics. For example, at the location:
- surface of the skin;
- organs of vision;
- oral cavity and respiratory tract.
And the degree of severity is divided into the following:
- I - damage affects the upper layer of the epidermis and causes redness, burning, small swelling. Healing occurs within a few days, without leaving cicatricial changes.
- II - the upper layer of the skin is damaged with the formation of vesicles (vesicles) filled with serous fluid, redness and swelling. After opening the vesicles, pink erosion is exposed. Heals the wound for several weeks and without consequences.
- III - the surface and deep layers of the skin are affected. On the surface, bullae (large bubbles) or a scab, whose color depends on the type of thermal factor, can be formed on the surface and can range from black or brown dry (flame, hot object) or grayish and soft (boiling water). The third degree is divided into 2 degrees, denoted by the letters A and B.
- IV - charring not only the entire thickness of the skin, but also muscles, bones.
Burns in dogs of I-II degree heal independently, leaving no scarring, if there is no secondary suppuration. At the III-IV degree, it is required to clean the focus from necrotic tissues with subsequent plastic surgery of the wound surface. Heavy burns cause failure of internal organs, disruption of hydration, decreased immunity, accumulation of toxins. Symptoms accompanying the burn depend on the degree and area of the lesion. Common symptoms are:
- painful sensations;
- increase in temperature local or general;
In severe burns, fever can occur. Extensive lesions of considerable depth can be accompanied by:
- tachycardia, increased heart rate;
- tremor of extremities.
The dog has an excitement that is replaced by apathy. The urine output decreases, its color and odor changes. In the future, extensive burns can cause the failure of some organs, cardiac arrest or breathing, collapse and death.
Treatment of burns of different etiology
Treatment of burns in dogs depends on:
- type of thermal or chemical agent;
- the magnitude of the affected area;
- degree of burn;
- presence of secondary infection;
- general condition of the animal.
If the dog has received burns, then before the arrival of the veterinarian, first aid should be given to her.
First aid to an animal
Immediately remove the factor that caused the burn - to bring down the flame, turn off the current. If the dog has undergone a thermal burn, then it is necessary to attach a bubble with ice, a napkin moistened with ice water. Keep the cold for about half an hour. Then cut out the wool and impose a sterile bandage. Lubricate the burn with nothing. This can subsequently complicate the healing of the wound.
If the chemical burn was caused by acid, then after it is washed away with a large amount of water, it is necessary to neutralize the acid with a 2% solution of ordinary soda. When burned with alkali, it is also rinsed with water and neutralized with a 2% solution of acid (lemon, acetic). Salts of alkali metals or quicklime can not be washed with water. They are removed with sunflower oil.
If the burn occupies a large area and penetrates deeply into the tissues, then the dog needs to be wrapped in a blanket to warm it and give it a drink.
With burns of I-II degree, external means are used. Sprays and ointments with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and reparative properties. Massive and deep burns require treatment with antiseptics, removal of dead and charred tissues. If secondary infection has joined, then the animal is injected with antibiotics.
If the oral cavity is burned and the dog can not eat independently, then nourishment is applied through the nasal probe, intravenous administration of nutrient solutions or nutrition through esophagostomy. If the burn caused swelling of the airways, then a tracheotomy is performed to restore breathing. In any case, the dog is given pain medications, since the burns cause pain.
Watch the video and learn more about burns in pets:
In severe burns, several types of surgical treatment are used in a vet clinic:
- necrotomy - when the scab formed at deep burns is dissected to restore the blood supply of tissues and prevent their necrosis;
- necroectomy - removal of charred and dead tissue, purification of the hearth burn;
- amputation of the limb - if the degree of burn is such that it is not possible to save the paw;
- skin transplantation - in animals it is used for very large foci. The skin of dogs is very mobile and small defects are simply sutured.
If the dog has less than 13% of the body burned, then the treatment prognosis is favorable. With a burn of 50% or more, the outlook is unfavorable.