Unfortunately, pets are not insured against various ailments. They are mild, moderate and critical. Pulmonary edema in dogs is critically dangerous. To cope with such diseases in the home is impossible. What are the causes, symptoms and features of emergency treatment of this disease in dogs? What does the owner need to know so that his pet can be provided with emergency assistance on time?
- Что представляет собой заболевание 1. What is a disease?
- Причины отека легких у собак 2. Causes of pulmonary edema in dogs
- Симптомы отека легких у собак и течение болезни 3. Symptoms of pulmonary edema in dogs and the course of the disease
- Что нужно знать о шоковом состоянии у собаки 4. What you need to know about the shock condition of the dog
- Диагностика отека легких 5. Diagnosis of pulmonary edema
- Неотложная помощь 6. Emergency assistance
- Лечение отека легких у собак 7. Treatment of pulmonary edema in dogs
- Профилактические меры 8. Preventive measures
What is a disease
The lungs are the main respiratory organ, both of man and dogs, which is a paired one. In turn, they consist of alveoli. The main purpose of the lungs - gas exchange, that is, the adoption of oxygen and the discharge into the external environment of carbon dioxide. In order for this process to occur correctly, each alveolus is surrounded by the smallest network of capillaries. Finally, they communicate with the system of veins and arteries.
Due to the fact that the blood vessels overflow with blood, blood plasma and interstitial fluid are released into nearby tissues (in this case, into the alveoli). They are filled with liquid, and normal gas exchange in them stops. This process proceeds gradually, in an upward direction.
If we provide the animal with the necessary assistance in time, when the alveoli are not yet completely filled with fluid, the animal can be saved. However, the reaction of the owners should be immediate. When you stop breathing the chances of salvation are negligible.
Pulmonary edema can be interstitial and alveolar. Interstitial edema is formed as a result of fluid accumulation in the space outside the vessels. It develops as a result of heart failure in dogs.
With an increase in pressure in the veins, the plasma begins to enter the alveoli, along with erythrocytes and leukocytes. Such edema is characterized by a pronounced symptomatic picture of shock. In severe conditions, acidosis, hypercapnia develops: with the progression of these phenomena, breathing stops.
Causes of pulmonary edema in dogs
There are three main causes of this pathology in dogs:
- High pressure in the vessels through which blood passes from the heart to the lungs and back. With a significant increase in pressure, the permeability of the vessel deteriorates, and the plasma gradually enters the alveoli. This happens as a result of heart defects, cardiopathy of dogs, endocarditis. High hydrostatic pressure occurs with intensive infusions.
- The big difference between the oncotic indicator of blood pressure and interstitial fluid pressure. The fluid from the blood vessel gradually goes into the intracellular space. Such phenomena may develop as a result of hypoproteinemia.
- High permeability of vascular membranes. This happens as a result of pneumonia, as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation of blood in dogs.
The following factors also contribute to the development of pulmonary edema:
- acute renal failure;
- acute overheating;
- snake bite;
- electric shock;
- trauma to the skull or brain;
- paresis of the larynx;
- the presence of foreign bodies in the larynx;
- CO 2 poisoning or smoke;
- blood poisoning;
- anaphylactic shock.
In older dogs, edema sometimes develops as a result of osteoarthritis due to excessive loads.
Symptoms of pulmonary edema in dogs and the course of the disease
During edema of the lungs in dog representatives secrete slow and fast forms. However, their symptoms are similar:
- Oppression behavior. The animal is very depressed and does not respond to food .
- Rapid breathing. It is necessary to pay attention to the characteristic pose of the pet. The dog places his front paws and pulls out his neck. In such a position, she tries to straighten the airways and straighten the ribs, thus making her breathing easier. In a serious condition, when symptoms develop very quickly, the dog lies in a lateral position.
- Breath changes: the animal tries to make short and staccum respiratory movements. At the same time the nostrils are widely straightened. Visible intense abdominal breathing.
- Behavior change - the animal becomes restless.
- There is a dry and hoarse cough . It resembles a cough in people suffering from cardiac and vascular pathologies.
- The gums, tongue, and sometimes the eyelids become pale. The bluish tint of these mucous membranes appears fairly quickly. If the dog has light pigmentation, then you can notice blue in the nostrils.
- Body temperature drops.
- Unnatural discharges appear from the nostrils and mouth. The consistency of their transparent with a pink tinge. It is possible the release of bloody foam.
- Vesicular breathing is weakened. This can be seen using a stethoscope.
- When tapping the chest, a dull sound is heard. This is especially noticeable in a dangerous condition.
These symptoms may appear suddenly. With lightning, there is a serious threat to the life of the dog.
What you need to know about the shock condition of the dog
Pulmonary edema can contribute to the development of dog shock. In this case, an abrupt halt or weakening of the most important functions of the body to almost zero occurs. As a rule, due to pulmonary edema, a torpid kind of shock develops. Its signs are as follows:
- lack of reflexes to any external stimuli;
- shallow and very weak breathing;
- weak pulse, sometimes - filamentous content;
- constriction of the pupils;
- Blueing mucous membranes of the body.
Diagnosis of pulmonary edema
The diagnosis is made according to the results of the analysis of symptoms, listening to the lungs, which determines the moist rales. Radiographic data are quite informative.
Laboratory data show a significant increase in the number of leukocyte cells in the blood, hyperazotemia, excessive activity of liver enzymes.
Radiography is usually carried out in two planes. A marked decrease in lung tissue transparency. The roots of the lungs are blurred and expanded. Focal changes in the lungs are much less common: most often all of the lung lobes change.
Differentiate the swelling is necessary from:
- collapse of the respiratory throat;
- paresis of the larynx;
- airway obstruction;
- thromboembolism of the lung artery.
If the owner noticed signs of this dangerous disease in a four-legged friend, then the first thing to stop doing is to panic. However, in any case, the owner should know that the condition of the pet is very serious, and they can be assisted only at the veterinary clinic. The primary task of the owner of the dog is the quick delivery of the animal to the veterinary clinic. This is the first and emergency assistance.
On the way to the veterinary clinic, you need to help the dog: it needs to maintain the most correct posture, remove saliva and other fluids. If possible, air the vehicle to provide fresh air for the dog. Be sure to reassure the dog.
Treatment of pulmonary edema in dogs
First of all, it is necessary to minimize the physical activity of the dog. As the animal is restless, it is necessary to minimize the effect of stress. Immediately begins oxygen therapy, that is, inhalation of oxygen.
Drug support is the introduction of such drugs:
- diuretics (furosemide and others);
- glucocorticoid drugs (Dexamethasone or Prednisone);
- sedatives ;
- vasodilators (nitroglycerin);
If necessary, in the conditions of veterinary clinics bleeding is carried out. Cordiamine or Caffeine is administered to support the heart muscle.
If pulmonary edema is caused by non-cardiogenic causes, then first of all it is necessary to eliminate the underlying disease, and in particular, hypoproteinemia. Conduction of acute respiratory failure, correction of oxygen deficiency. It is important to prevent the development of shock. Intensive therapy is carried out to fully stabilize the health of the dog.
Only after the stabilization of the state of the animal is it discharged home. At home he needs to provide favorable conditions:
- minimize the effects of stress;
- avoid prolonged and intense physical exertion;
- timely feed and water the dog (food and drink should be selected only recommended by the veterinarian);
- inject the necessary medication.
The dog needs a full and good care. If she moves a lot and leads an active lifestyle, she also needs rest. In addition, she must be given the opportunity to retire.
Particular attention should be paid to dogs prone to heart disease. In the first aid kit of such owners there must always be the necessary medications to support cardiac activity. Dog owners must own resuscitation.
Equally important to establish a proper balanced diet. On this depends the health and activity of the four-pawed pet.
The animal must be periodically shown to the veterinarian for a routine examination. This is a guarantee of early diagnosis of dangerous pet diseases.