Dog experts, when evaluating the exterior of a dog, always look to see if the jaws and teeth are connected correctly. Many may think that this moment is important only for the show-class dogs that adorn themselves on the exhibition grounds, but an incorrect bite in dogs can cause various diseases. What bite is considered correct and are there any methods for correcting it?
- Виды прикусов у собак 1. Types of bite in dogs
- Правильный прикус – ножницеобразный (ортогнатия) 2. Correct bite - scissor-like (orthognathy)
- Патологические прикусы 3. Pathological bites
- Последствия 4. Consequences
- Коррекция 5. Correction
- Каппы из прозрачного материала 6. Kappas made of transparent material
- Съемные брекеты 7. Removable brackets
- Несъемные конструкции 8. Fixed constructions
Types of bites in dogs
Specialists distinguish 4 types of bites and a number of disorders, which are deformations of the dentoalveolar apparatus. There is one nuance about which all experienced dog breeders know - to detect the presence of an incorrect bite in puppies under 4 months is almost impossible.
Correct bite - scissor-like (orthognathy)
In this case, the lower incisors touch the bottom of the upper incisors, which in most cases is considered the norm. A similar structure is observed in wild dogs, which is due to the evolutionary development and preservation of the gene pool. When the jaws of the animal close, they create a strong lock, from which the prey can not be freed.
Pathologically incorrect bites include:
- Straight (tongs) - the incisors of both jaws form a single line when closing. Fangs and molars do not fully adhere to each other. In some breeds, this phenomenon is considered normal. Has a significant drawback - the incisors are faster grinding.
- Snack - called progeny, with this structure cutters, less often canines, lower jaw protrude. In dog breeds, boxer, bulldog, pekingese and shih-tzu snacks are included in the standard, for others it is considered a defect.
- Overshot (with a similar deviation disqualify dogs of any breed) - the lower jaw is shorter than the top, which forms a large gap.
In addition, there are common disorders in the development of the dentoalveolar system:
- teeth that grow in two rows;
- lack of teeth or appear superfluous;
- shortened bridle;
- the appearance of a cross bite - the lower incisors go beyond the upper ones when the jaw closes;
- skewed bite - a defect that occurs due to incorrect formation of the apparatus;
- Open bite is a pathology in which the anterior incisors form a gap with the jaw closed.
There are a lot of defects, which in some way harm the animal, quite often leading to more serious violations in the work of the body.
The chewing apparatus is referred to the gastrointestinal tract, it is considered to be its beginning. Therefore, any deformation of the teeth and jaws negatively affects the digestive processes and has the following manifestations:
- it can be difficult to eat, the dog can not chew it properly, which provokes gastrointestinal disorders;
- with severe malocclusion, there is a risk of injury to the oral cavity;
- when the jaws tightly close, the dog is constantly drooling, because of this, wet eczema and other dermatological diseases appear.
If the animal shows slight deviations from the norm, and they do not affect the quality of life, then one can not correct the bite. But usually a decision about the need for correction is taken by a veterinarian - orthodontist.
Methods for correcting the occlusion of friends of our quadrupeds are similar in many respects to the methods used for humans. In general, the specialist proposes to install a non-removable design - braces, or removable - a kappa, a bracket,
Kappas made of transparent material
Removable product, which not so long ago was used only to solve problems with bite in people. Kappus can be removed during pet feeding, brushing teeth and other hygiene procedures.
To remove an exact mold, a specialist should only use anesthesia once. The design is simple in application and action: it fits snugly to the teeth and "presses" on the desired areas.
After 8-12 weeks the product is replaced with a new one, which is more by several millimeters, which provides a shift of the tooth row. Over time, the teeth are in the right place. This process is constantly monitored, for this the doctor periodically makes intermediate casts.
Wearing a kappa dog should almost all the time, except for those moments when it is required to remove it. The design requires regular maintenance - cleaning, rinsing under running water, etc.
Because of the high price and laboriousness, this method of bite correction is not very popular.
Is an alternative to a transparent kappa, the product looks like a ring of rubber. When wearing them, you can achieve significant results if the patient is a puppy with not yet fully formed bone structures.
See the video as yet you can fix the bite:
They are set for the entire period of therapy, periodically adjusting the position of the plate, changing the rotation, tilt of the dentition. Non-removable bracket systems consist of locks and a wire frame, they are attached to the teeth with a special cementing agent. The main advantage of this product is wire, if necessary, is replaced.
It does not matter what kind of construction the orthodontist sets for a pet, the owner should be aware of the limitations and rules of care that exist. Until recently, an incorrect bite in dogs was a pathology that could not be corrected. However, modern veterinary dentistry is constantly evolving, and today most of the violations can be corrected. Naturally, the doctor decides whether such actions are necessary or whether the condition does not threaten health.