Cynologists, evaluating the exterior of the dog, always look to see if her jaws and teeth are connected correctly. It may seem to many that this moment is important only for dogs of the show class, show off at exhibition venues, however, an improper bite in dogs can cause various diseases. Which bite is considered correct and are there any methods for its correction?
- Виды прикусов у собак 1. Types of bites in dogs
- Правильный прикус – ножницеобразный (ортогнатия) 2. Correct bite - scissor (orthognathia)
- Патологические прикусы 3. Pathological bite
- Последствия 4. Consequences
- Коррекция 5. Correction
- Каппы из прозрачного материала 6. Kappa from transparent material
- Съемные брекеты 7. Removable braces
- Несъемные конструкции 8. Fixed construction
Bite Types in Dogs
Experts distinguish 4 types of bites and a number of disorders, which are deformations of the dental apparatus. There is one nuance that all experienced dog breeders know about - it is almost impossible to detect the presence of an incorrect bite in puppies under 4 months old.
Correct bite - scissor (orthognathia)
In this case, the lower incisors touch the base of the upper ones, which in most cases is considered the norm. A similar structure is observed in wild dogs, due to the evolutionary development and preservation of the gene pool. When the animal's jaws close, they create a strong lock, from which the prey cannot free itself.
Pathological incorrect bites include:
- Straight (pincer) - the incisors of both jaws create one line at closing. Fangs and molars do not fully adhere to each other. In some breeds, this phenomenon is considered normal. It has a significant drawback - the cutters grind faster.
- Snack - called progeny, with the structure of the incisors, rarely canines, lower jaw come forward. Dogs of breed boxer, bulldog, Pekingese and Shih Tzu are included in the standard snack, for the rest it is considered a defect.
- Nedokus (with a similar deviation dogs of any breed are disqualified) - the lower jaw is shorter than the upper one, which forms a large gap.
In addition, there are common disorders in the development of the dental system:
- teeth that grow in two rows;
- lack of teeth or extra;
- short bridle;
- the occurrence of cross bite - the lower incisors go beyond the upper when the jaw closes;
- skew bite - a defect arising due to improper formation of the apparatus;
- open bite is a pathology in which the anterior incisors form a gap with the jaw closed.
There are many defects that in one way or another harm the animal, quite often leading to more serious violations in the body.
Chewing apparatus attributed to the gastrointestinal tract, it is considered its beginning. Therefore, any deformation of the teeth, jaws adversely affect the digestive processes and have the following manifestations:
- eating can be difficult, the dog cannot chew it fully, which provokes gastrointestinal disorders;
- with a strong violation of bite there is a risk of injury to the mouth;
- when the jaws are not tightly closed, the dog is constantly drooling, because of this, weeping eczema and other dermatological diseases appear.
If the animal has small deviations from the norm, and they do not affect the quality of life, then the bite can be not corrected. But usually the decision about the need for correction takes veterinarian - orthodontist.
Methods for correcting bite in our four-legged friends are in many ways similar to the methods used for humans. Basically, a specialist offers to install a fixed structure - braces, or removable - mouthguard, bracket, etc.
Transparent material mouthguards
Removable product, which is not so long ago used only to solve problems with the bite in humans. Kappa can be cleaned during pet feeding, tooth brushing and other hygiene procedures.
In order to take an accurate impression, the specialist only needs to use anesthesia once. The design is easy to use and operate: it fits snugly to the teeth and “presses” on the desired areas.
After 8-12 weeks, the product is replaced with a new one, which is more by a few millimeters, which ensures the shift of the dentition. Over time, the teeth are in the right place. This process is constantly monitored, for which the doctor periodically produces intermediate impressions.
Wear a mouthguard dog should almost all the time, except for those moments when you want to remove it. The design requires regular maintenance - cleaning, rinsing under running water, etc.
Due to the high price and laboriousness, this method of bite correction is not very popular.
It is an alternative to transparent mouthguard, the product looks like a rubber ring. When wearing them, it is possible to achieve significant results if the patient is a puppy with not yet fully formed bone structures.
Watch the video how you can fix the bite:
They are set for the entire period of therapy, periodically adjusting the position of the plate, changing the rotation, tilt of the dentition. Fixed bracket systems consist of locks and wire frame, they are attached to the teeth with the help of special cementing means. The main advantage of this product - the wire, if necessary, is replaced.
No matter what construction an orthodontist establishes to the pet, the owner must be aware of the limitations and rules of care. Until recently, an incorrect bite in dogs was a pathology that could not be corrected. However, modern veterinary dentistry is constantly evolving, and today most of the violations can be corrected. Naturally, the doctor decides whether such actions are necessary or whether the condition does not threaten health.