Urolithiasis in dogs is a pathological condition of the urinary system, in which concretions form in the cavities of the organs. Crystallization of salts is accompanied by violation of diuresis, intoxication of the animal's body and inflammation of the urinary system.
- Факторы развития патологии 1. Factors of development of pathology
- Типы уролитов и их характеристика 2. Types of urolites and their characteristics
- Основные признаки мочекаменной болезни у собак 3. The main signs of urolithiasis in dogs
- Методы диагностики патологии 4. Methods of pathology diagnosis
- Методы терапии МКБ 5. Methods of therapy ICD
- Меры предупреждения заболевания 6. Prevention measures
Factors of pathology development
The damaging effect of internal and external factors can provoke the development of urolithiasis (IBD) in dogs regardless of age. However, according to statistics, in 15% of animals, the ICD is noted, of which 70% of urlitaz is diagnosed at the age of 7-8 years, 20% at the age of 4-6 years, and only 10% of dogs aged 1 to 3.5 years .
There is a relationship between the incidence of urolithiasis in pets with:
- Sexual accessory. Although the difference in the results of the study is small, but the males suffer a little more often from urolitaz, which may be due to the peculiarities of the structure of the excretory system, since the length of the urethra in males is longer than in the bitches, which in violation of metabolic processes facilitates the loss of urolytes in the urethra.
- Belonging to a particular breed. In small dogs, whose weight does not exceed 10 kg, urolytes are formed due to a smaller volume of the bladder, which makes it more rare for emptying. As a result, the content of salts in the urine rises.
- Low physical activity. In dogs that are rarely walked around, or walking takes little time, the risk of calcification is significantly higher than in active animals. Hypodinamy causes stagnant processes in the organs.
- Disturbances in nutrition and water consumption. In dogs eating a diet high in mineral salts or protein, the risk of IBD is higher than in animals with proper nutrition. Animals that drink a little liquid get sick much more often, as the density of urine is increased. Restriction in the diet of foods with a large number of purines reduces the risk of disease in dogs ICD. A large amount of fiber, bran, soybean increases the risk of formation of silicate stones.
- Bacterial or viral infection. According to statistics, this factor is more typical for the occurrence of urlitaz in the bitches, which is also due to the peculiarity of the structure of the genitourinary system. In this case, the accumulation of bacteria can become the center of crystallization of urolites and the cause of the formation of large concretions.
The causes of the formation of stones and sand in the urinary system do not affect their composition. However, there is a relationship between the frequency of formation of certain types of uroliths and factors such as breed, age and sex of the dog.
Types of uroliths and their characteristics
There are 4 main types of stones formed in the ICD - struvite, urate, phosphate, oxalate. Consider their composition and risk groups, which most often fall on animals of a certain breed, age and sex.
- Struvites and tripolphosphates - form ammonium salts of magnesium phosphate. Struvites occur much more often in all breeds of dogs with diagnosed ICD. Among the rocks that have the risk of formation of struvite, allocate beagle, dachshund, terrier, Pekingese. Concrements of this type can be formed, regardless of age, but female bitches in the age category of 3.5-5 years are most often affected by struvite urlitase. The main reason for the formation of stones-struvite - alkaline pH of urine and the presence of pathogenic microflora.
- Oxalates - calcium oxalates drop out in acid urine. A similar type of concrement is characteristic for dogs of such breeds as affenpinscher, shih-tzu, pug, lhasa apso, lap-dog, Yorkshire terrier. Among patients, a vet clinic with oxalates predominantly male dogs aged 6-7.5 years.
- Urat - are represented by urate ammonium. Increased risk of development of the ICD and the formation of urates are subjected to lap dogs, Dalmatians, shepherds, terriers, wolfhounds. Uratas are more typical for dogs aged 1.0-3.5 years, and is caused by uritolysis by genetic disorders.
- Cystins are a type of stones that is rarely formed in a bough. The pathology is caused by genetic abnormalities and occurs in male terriers, dachshunds, chihuahua at the age of 1,5-5 years.
Stones are rarely monocomponent, they are usually 2 or more salts. The surface of large calculi can be smooth, spongy or covered with spines and protuberances. Depending on the prevailing salt in the composition, the color can vary from white, yellowish, gray to brown. The genetic predisposition to a certain type of urate is confirmed by the fact that they are detected in representatives of certain breeds. Uroliths composed of salts of phosphate or calcium oxalate are characteristic of aging dogs.
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The main signs of urolithiasis in dogs
The main symptom of urolithiasis is difficulty with urination. If the urinary tract is obstructed or obstructed as a result of inflammation, the urine may or may not be excreted at all. The animal behaves restlessly, whines with pain. Symptoms of pathology depend on the stage of the disease. For example:
- In the mild form of ICD, the following symptoms are noted: increased diuresis, traces of blood in the urine, pain and discomfort during urine excretion, the dog strenuously lickens the urogenital area.
- With a severe form of the disease, there is a constant flow and incontinence (pollakiuria), an increase in the amount of blood in the urine and an increase in pain (hematuria). The dog is thirsty, and it drinks a lot (polydipsia), while the volume of urine (polyuria) is significantly increased (2-3 times), which is accompanied by a depressed state, weakness, apathy in the animal. Because of a lack of appetite, weight can drop dramatically, until the development of anorexia.
- Stage of development of the ICD, which threatens the dog's life: the urine ceases to stand out completely, and this condition lasts 2-3 or more days (anuria). The dog loses consciousness as a result of heart failure (collapse). This manifestation of the disease can lead to the death of the animal. From the mouth of the animal there is a smell of ammonia (uremic halitosis). Vomiting can occur, which leads to severe dehydration and tonic convulsions. If untimely or inadequate treatment, the condition passes into a coma and can lead to death.
With prolonged anuria, an animal can burst a bladder. Chemical and mechanical irritation of the urinary tract and the attachment of bacterial infection cause chronic cystitis , kidney failure, pyelonephritis, nephroptosis, etc. To save the life of a pet, it should be as soon as possible to go to a veterinary clinic and undergo a survey.
Methods of pathology diagnosis
When presenting complaints and describing the symptoms of the disease, the veterinarian conducts a visual examination and palpation of the bladder. To detect, clarify the location and determine the shape, size of the stones are prescribed radiography or ultrasound. To determine the type of calculus, a urinalysis is prescribed. To identify the pathological processes that accompany the ICD, a blood and urine sample for the salt, the number of leukocytes, and bacussis are performed.
The urine for analysis should be fresh and warm. Cooling the solution causes crystals to fall out, and long-term storage distorts the results of the analyzes. In the presence of pathogenic microflora, the sensitivity of microorganisms to different groups of antibiotics is determined in order to choose the most effective medicine. In emergency cases, cystoscopy and cystography may be required. After specifying the diagnosis, the doctor develops a treatment strategy.
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Therapy of ICD
Treatment of urolithiasis in dogs involves an integrated approach and the use of one or more methods of treatment. Conservative therapy includes the following:
- Drug treatment. The animal is prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, drugs that increase diuresis, painkillers and sedatives.
- The use of methods of physiotherapy, such as pulsed magnetotherapy, makes it possible to facilitate the outflow of urine, removes the inflammatory process, "crushes" certain concrements, and relieves pain syndrome.
- Special diet and normalization of drinking regimen. To date, many leading companies produce special feed. For example, a wet Urinary S / O or Urinary U / C feed from ROYAL CANIN. The marking shows for prevention, what types of urates the feed is intended for. So S / O - from oxalate or struvite urlitaz, and U / C - from urate and cystine stones. For small dogs, the most at risk of the disease, the Urinary S / O Small Dog under 10 kg was created.
To remove from the urinary system of the dog stones and sand, urinary washing and urine output are used with the help of a catheter. In severe renal failure, dialysis is carried out - cleaning the animal's blood from toxins. If conservative therapy does not help, removal of concrements is carried out by surgical methods:
- Urethrostomy - removal of concrements through the stoma - an opening in the urethra. After restoring the patency, the stoma remains unopened until the dog's condition stabilizes.
- Cystotomy - opening the urinary and complete removal of stones, from which it is impossible to get rid of less traumatic methods.
- Retrograde urogidropropsy is an operation in which stones that obstruct the urethral cavity are pushed into the bladder.
During the rehabilitation period, supportive care is provided. With the help of droppers, the volume of fluid is filled, anti-inflammatory drugs are injected. The process of recovery is controlled by dynamic urine and blood tests. After the therapy or to prevent urogenital disease, dogs are prevented from pathology.
In order to avoid the risk of recurrence of the disease or for the prevention of disease in risk groups, it is necessary to exclude factors that cause metabolic disorders:
- Normalize the food. Use feeds with a high percentage of moisture (70-80%), low in phosphorus, sodium, calcium, protein. In the finished feed premium and super-premium class includes substances that maintain a normal pH of urine and promote the dissolution of certain types of stones. The diet is used for life both after conservative and after surgical treatment.
- Ensure access to clean, soft (filtered) water. In a hot period, drink the dog during walks.
- Do not overfeed an animal - obesity promotes the formation of stones.
- When feeding with dry food near the bowl, there should be plenty of clean water.
- An animal must be provided with adequate physical load - games, walks.
- In time to examine the animal and sanitize all foci of infection, treat pathological abnormalities and ailments.
Prevention of the ICD and proper treatment will provide the animal with a healthy long life.