Muscular skeleton for dogs is an important component that guarantees the full life of the animal. However, this system is also often violated, which significantly worsens the condition of the whole organism. Myositis in dogs refers to the pathological conditions of muscle tissue, the inflammatory process in which can not only impede the movement of the pet, but also completely immobilize it. There are several types of disease, the clinical picture of which varies, but unites them one - the muscles are affected.
The name of this kind of myositis speaks for itself - the inflammatory processes in the musculature develops as a result of injuries - open wounds, bruises, muscle ruptures or sprains.
Traumatic myositis is accompanied by the following symptoms in dogs:
- the dog's appetite decreases ;
- The animal is limited in movement, motor activity decreases;
- Palpation (palpation) reveals swelling in the area of muscle tissue.
They can be different in size, accompanied by pain syndrome. At a touch it is felt, that fabrics are hot, on a surface damages of integuments are appreciable. In those places where there is a rupture of the skin, it is often observed the formation of a purulent fluid associated with the development of hematoma.
That muscle, which affected the disease, becomes more voluminous, tense.
Treatment of this type of myositis in dogs includes the following procedures:
- putting cold objects on the affected area (first two days);
- the use of a short novocaine block with the addition of an antibiotic ;
- After that, warming procedures are used - compresses, paraffin wax applications;
- therapeutic massage (only after complete elimination of pain syndrome).
If the pet has developed a chronic form of traumatic myositis, then tissue growth, muscle and creams, which have irritating effect, procedures of therapeutic ultrasound are used to eliminate muscle growth. Muscular tears are superimposed on special sutures.
The timing of the cure and the consequences of this type of myositis directly depend on the complexity of tissue damage. If we are talking about minor injuries, then the forecasts are quite favorable. The formed hemorrhages are absorbed, and all signs of the disease pass, it can take from three to 15 days.
In more complicated cases, the course of the disease is prolonged, the hematomas dissolve not completely. In addition, the formation of blood cysts or ulcers is possible in damaged tissues. In some cases, muscle fibers degenerate, complications of this phenomenon include:
- shortening of the affected muscle;
- atrophic changes;
- irreversible muscular function disorder.
Cysts and purulent formations are subject to autopsy, treatment is carried out in the same way as with other wounds.
Purulent form of myositis
This variety of myositis is infectious in nature - a pathogenic pathogen penetrates into the damaged tissues - staphylococcus , E. coli, streptococcus. This can occur due to accidental injury to the animal, injection procedures without the use of aseptics and antiseptics, as well as the spread of purulent process from other tissues and organs.
Clinical signs of purulent myositis include the following conditions:
- the animal is in a depressed state, lethargy and low activity are noted;
- when probed, the dog feels severe pain;
- muscles are in a stressed state;
- body temperature increased.
With the development of the disease in the center of the swollen region, softening appears, which is a sure sign of abscess development. Later, the death of muscle fibers and their decay occur. The fluid extracted by puncture has a purulent character, a dark brown color, very often contains gases.
At the initial stage of the disease, the veterinarian conducts a short block with novocaine and antibiotics, as well as intramuscular injections of antibiotics. For internal reception are prescribed drugs from the class of sulfonamides.
Formed abscesses in the conditions of the clinic are opened, purulent fluid is removed. Drainage of the formed cavity with balsamic liniment (according to Vishnevsky), streptocid emulsion solution or sintomycin ointment is made.
Complications of purulent myositis include diffuse inflammation, in which case purulent exudate often penetrates into muscle fiber and provokes the formation of phlegmon. This phenomenon is accompanied by a purulent feverish condition. Suppuration is localized between the muscle fibers, extending to the tendon plate. There is a smoothing of the intermuscular trough, and in the region of the inflammation focus, collateral swelling develops in the subcutaneous layers.
This kind of myositis has an infectious-allergic etiology, during the disease in the connective tissues of the musculature neuro-dystrophic processes occur. It can flow in both acute and chronic form.
The exact causes of rheumatic myositis have not yet been revealed, but there are signs of allergic and infectious (against hemolytic streptococci) nature.
Among the factors that contribute to the development of the disease, we can note the following:
- frequent and prolonged colds ;
- acute hypothermia (swimming in water, getting under the rain, often dogs are supercooled when they run away from their owners and wander for a long time, walking after taking a bath);
- propensity to allergic reactions ;
- advanced age;
- weak immune system.
Most often rheumatic myositis affects working dogs of hunting and shepherd breeds. The disease is always accompanied by pain in the damaged muscles. Dogs suffering from myositis tend to move less, whine and squeal when they are touched. Pets are difficult to climb from a lying position, when walking it is noticeable that they are tense.
Defecation in the pet is difficult, it can at this time moan, and sometimes even can not go to the toilet . If the lesion affects only certain muscle groups, then the signs of myositis are less pronounced.
From the rheumatic type of the disease, the muscles of the lumbar region and back often suffer. Any, even the most insignificant movement, in this case, is extremely painful, the animal has a noticeable hunchback.
In the spread of rheumatoid damage, the cervical and occipital areas are involved. In such a situation, the dog is very difficult to take food, because because of the painful syndrome, it can not lift or lower its head. And, in addition, rheumatism can affect the muscles responsible for chewing processes, then the pet can not eat at all. When the musculature of the extremities is injured, the animal begins to limp.
When palpation places of the localization of the disease you can feel the muscle tension and their swelling, the pet at that moment feels strong pain.
With the aggravation of rheumatic myositis, there may be a sharp increase in temperature, in severe cases, pain can move from one muscle group to another. Against the backdrop of a chronic illness, muscle atrophy occurs.
Treatment of the disease is complex:
- If the dog is kept on a chain or in an enclosure, it is necessary to place it in a warm room.
- To eliminate the pathogenic B-hemolytic bacterium streptococcus antibiotics is used intramuscularly (Penicillin, Bicillin-3, etc.). For a positive effect, the shock dose is calculated.
- For internal reception, funds with a specific antirheumatic action - Brufen, Butadion, sodium salicylate - are prescribed.
- To stop pain, inject analgin (subcutaneously or inside muscle tissue).
- An effective procedure in this case is blood transfusion (the blood should be stabilized with sodium salicylate);
- Often, therapy is supplemented with glucocorticoids.
A positive result is also given by the following procedures - UHF, light irradiation, medical massage. It is useful to rub the affected muscles with a line of irritating action. For the same purposes, you can prepare a special mixture of bleached and camphor oil, salicylic acid and methyl ether. The use of this method with subsequent wrapping has an effective analgesia.