Cryptorchidism in dogs is a hereditary abnormality in which the testicles do not exit into the scrotum in time. This anomaly occurs in 3-10% of cases and is noted both in representatives of different breeds of dogs, and inside the breed.
Cryptorchidism is the reason for disqualification from breeding a male. However, studies show that in order to preserve the purity of the breed, it is necessary to reject not only the sick male dog, but all the litter along with the parents. Proponents of the genetic conditionality of pathology argue that since the carrier of the "rejected" gene are females, then they should be removed from breeding. What are the nuances of this disease, and what methods of treatment are used by veterinarians.
- Механизм возникновения патологии 1. The mechanism of the origin of pathology
- Причины крипторхизма у собак 2. Cryptorchidism in dogs
- Симптомы крипторхизма у кобелей 3. Symptoms of cryptorchidism in males
- Виды крипторхизма 4. Types of cryptorchidism
- Методы диагностики 5. Methods of diagnosis
- Лечение крипторхизма у собак 6. Treatment of cryptorchidism in dogs
- Подготовка к операции и постоперационный уход 7. Preparing for surgery and post-operative care
The mechanism of the origin of pathology
In puppies born only, the testicles are located in the retroperitoneal space. The natural reduction of testicles to the scrotum occurs under the influence of several mechanisms:
- increased intra-abdominal pressure;
- activity of hormones;
- the condition of the ligament of the ligament and its attachment to the bottom of the scrotum.
By the age of 10-14 days, the body accumulates pituitary hormones and testosterone, synthesized by the glands of the testicle. Under the action of these hormones, a slow reduction of the ligament guide occurs, which is connected to the testicle (testicle) at one end, while the other is attached to the bottom of the scrotum. Cutting, the ligament transports testicles from the retroperitoneal space to the exit from the inguinal canal and leads to the corresponding scrotum department. As a rule, the final exit of the testicle occurs at the age of six months to a year and depends on the hormonal background in the puppy.
Cryptorchidism in dogs
If the amount of testosterone produced is not enough, the pituitary-gonadotropic mechanism is disrupted, and the natural process of the testicles exit into the scrotum is interrupted at some stage. In this case, the gonads are retained in the retroperitoneal space, inside the inguinal canal or at its exit orifice.
Pathology can be observed with good activity of hormones. Causes leading to pathology, can be, for example:
- violation of the passage of signals along nerve fibers to the muscles of the anorectal region;
- Stricture of the outlet duct or its opening;
- shortened ligament;
- anomaly of the structure of the base of the scrotum, which led to the formation of connective tissue folds blocking the exit of the testicles;
- an enlarged testicle;
- underdevelopment of the scrotum;
- endocrine imbalance in the bitch during pregnancy;
- mechanical groin injury in the puppy;
- infectious and fungal diseases, leading to edema pathway exit testicles.
As a result of endogenous or exogenous factors there is a delay in excretion or complete blockade of the testicles on one or both sides. Dogs with absence of both gonads in the scrotum are sterile, since an increase in temperature by several degrees leads to the transformation of gonadotropic tissues and the impossibility of synthesizing spermatozoa.
Unilateral cryptorchids retain fertility, but they are not used for breeding. Blocked testicles and they undergo transformation, increasing the risk of malignant processes in testicles. In addition, an autoimmune reaction to the transformation and death of cells in a blocked testicle can lead to a pathological reaction in the tissues of the reducted. Therefore, the only way out is total resection.
Symptoms of cryptorchidism in males
Distinguish between true and false cryptorchidism. In the first case, the testicles are not withdrawn to the scrotum due to mechanical or hormonal abnormalities, and it is impossible to remove it manually. But there are similar symptomatic pathologies that are not cryptorchidism. This, for example, the so-called "wandering testicle", in which the testicles are in the scrotum, are normally developed, but during stress or under hypothermia they "hide" inside the body.
The cause of the anomaly is an increase in the sensitivity of the receptor of the spermatic cord or ligament fixing the testicle, and too large an outlet of the inguinal canal. To establish the exact diagnosis it is possible only at differential diagnostics.
Remaining for a long time inside the body, the testicles undergo degenerative changes, in which normal spermatogenesis is impossible. Even after the operation to remove testicles into the scrotum cavity, recovery of spermatogenesis function in 84% of the operated animals does not occur.
Cryptorchids suffer, first of all, Leyding cells, which produce hormones that ensure the normal development and functioning of the reproductive organs and affect the frontal lobe of the pituitary gland. With cryptorchidism, not only pathologies of the reproductive system are noted, but also changes in development caused by an excess of pituitary hormones. When examining cryptorchids, it was found that they had different abnormalities:
- increased growth;
- weakened constitution;
- complete cretinism;
- increased excitability;
- abnormal hairline;
- prolapse of the palatine bone;
- epilepsy, etc.
Cryptorchidism is often noted in dogs of small and dwarf species. And pathology is inherited with a set of attributes - too long limbs, weakness and curvature of them, cretinism, etc.
Types of cryptorchidism
Depending on the location and severity of the anomaly, the following types are distinguished:
- congenital pathology, inherited;
- acquired as a result of external influence or systemic pathology;
- bilateral in the absence of both testicles;
- one-sided or monolateral;
- Abdominal, when testicles are localized in the retroperitoneal space;
- Inguinal, in which the testicles remain in the inguinal canal.
Sometimes there is a complete absence of testes, which can be detected only in an operative survey.
To clarify the diagnosis and determine the localization of testicles, several methods are used:
- palpation research. The doctor performs palpation studies of areas where the testicle may linger;
- ultrasound diagnostics. The method is not highly informative, as the result can be affected by the gassiness of the intestine, insufficient qualification of the doctor. The method is used if the testicles can not be detected palpably or they are located inside the body;
- assay for the administration of gonadotropin. Measure the testosterone level before the injection of the hormone and an hour after it. If the sex hormone activity is increased after injection, the diagnosis is confirmed;
- laparoscopy - a minimally invasive and highly informative method, using a laparoscope with a camera to examine the cavity of the large pelvis for detection of testicles.
When establishing an accurate diagnosis and excluding false cryptorchidism, the doctor develops a pathology therapy system.
Treatment of cryptorchidism in dogs
With the diagnosis of "cryptorchidism" it is recommended that the male be neutered so as not to spoil the breed. If the pet is not involved in exhibitions and the continuation of the breed, then conduct conservative or surgical treatment, depending on the cause of the pathology.
With an abnormal hormonal background, which determines the pathology, hormone therapy is prescribed. Treatment conducted in the period up to six months of age of the puppy was successful in 20% of cases. Puppy is administered drugs containing choriogonadotropin or gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which stimulate the synthesis of its own luteinotropin, which promotes the excretion of the testes. But this method of treatment should be used only in the endocrine nature of pathology. Otherwise, hormone therapy leads to an acceleration of neoplastic changes in the testicles.
To remove the testicles into the scrotum, surgical treatment is used. Orchipexy is an unpopular operation, as with a successful outcome in 20-30% of males fertility is restored, and the dog can participate in the binding, spreading the abnormal gene.
The operation is performed under general anesthesia by the open method or by a minimally invasive method - the method of laparotomy or laparoscopy. The operation consists of one or two stages. Two-stage is used when there is no possibility to immediately fix the testicle in the scrotum. At the first stage the gonad is removed and fixed on the thigh, and after a certain period of time it moves and is fixed in the scrotum.
With a one-step operation, excretion and fixation of testicles in the scrotum is carried out immediately. In terms of trauma and the period of recovery, orchipexy is comparable to the castration operation.
During the operation, a testicular biopsy is performed to exclude malignant degeneration. Indication for urgent orchidosis is a torsion of the testicles, pinch in the channel opening, the presence of inguinal hernia or ectopia of the testicle.
In general, males perform an orchiectomy. Resection is subject to testicles in case of hypotrophy, malignant degeneration or necrosis. In veterinary practice, orchipexy is very rare.
Preparing for surgery and postoperative care
Before the surgery, the dog is dehelminthized and examined. Conduct the necessary research complex, which is assigned by the veterinarian. The animal must undergo scheduled vaccination, at least one month before surgery. On the eve of the operation the puppy is kept on a starvation diet with a restricted drinking regime. The operating field is shaved and processed.
In the post-operation period, the animal is under observation in the hospital of the vet clinic. During the rehabilitation period, the animal can not be bathed, it is necessary to process the postoperative external sutures several times a day until they are completely healed. According to the indications, it may be necessary to prescribe antibiotics and analgesics. To the dog does not touch the seams, she is put on a collar or a special blanket. Sutures are removed 2 weeks after the intervention.
It is also necessary to monitor the state of health of the pet in the post-operation period, for a while to limit physical activity and maintain a diet. With a timely begun and adequately conducted treatment, the prognosis is positive. Breeders should take into account that the dog after orchid does not participate in breeding and exhibitions.