Cryptorchidism in dogs is a hereditary anomaly in which the testicles do not reach the scrotum in a timely manner. This anomaly occurs in 3-10% of cases and is observed both in representatives of different breeds of dogs, and within the breed.
Cryptorchidism is the cause of disqualification from breeding male. However, studies show that in order to preserve the purity of the breed, it is necessary to reject not only a sick dog, but also all litter with parents. Proponents of the genetic causation of pathology argue that since the carrier of the "defective" gene are females, then they should be removed from the breeding. What are the nuances of the disease, and what methods of treatment used by veterinarians.
- Механизм возникновения патологии 1. The mechanism of pathology
- Причины крипторхизма у собак 2. Causes of cryptorchidism in dogs
- Симптомы крипторхизма у кобелей 3. Symptoms of cryptorchidism in males
- Виды крипторхизма 4. Types of cryptorchidism
- Методы диагностики 5. Diagnostic methods
- Лечение крипторхизма у собак 6. Treatment of cryptorchidism in dogs
- Подготовка к операции и постоперационный уход 7. Preparation for surgery and postoperative care
The mechanism of pathology
In puppies just born, the testicles are located in the retroperitoneal space. The natural reduction of the testicles into the scrotum occurs under the action of several mechanisms:
- increase in intra-abdominal pressure;
- hormone activity;
- condition of the guide ligament and its attachment to the bottom of the scrotum.
By the age of 10-14 days, hormones of the pituitary and testosterone, synthesized by the testicular glands, accumulate in the male's body. Under the action of these hormones, a slow reduction of the guide ligament occurs, which is connected at one end to the testicle (testicle), while the other is attached to the bottom of the scrotum. By contracting, the ligament transports the testicles from the retroperitoneal space to the exit from the inguinal canal and leads to the appropriate section of the scrotum. As a rule, the final exit of the testicle occurs between the ages of six months and a year and depends on the hormonal background of the puppy.
Causes of cryptorchidism in dogs
If the amount of testosterone produced is insufficient, then the pituitary-gonadotropic mechanism is disrupted, and the natural process of the testicles exit into the scrotum is interrupted at some stage. In this case, the gonads are retained in the retroperitoneal space, inside the inguinal canal or at its orifice.
Pathology can be observed with good hormone activity. The reasons leading to pathology can be, for example:
- violation of the passage of signals through the nerve fibers to the muscles of the anorectal region;
- output channel stricture or openings;
- shortened ligament;
- anomaly of the structure of the base of the scrotum, leading to the formation of connective tissue folds, blocking the exit of the testicles;
- enlarged testicle;
- underdevelopment of the scrotum;
- endocrine imbalance in a bitch during pregnancy;
- mechanical injuries of the groin of a puppy;
- infectious and fungal diseases leading to edema of the exit pathway of the testicles.
As a result of endogenous or exogenous factors, there is a delay in elimination or a complete blockade of the testicles on one or two sides. Dogs with the absence of both gonads in the scrotum are sterile, since a temperature increase of several degrees leads to the transformation of gonadotropic tissues and the impossibility of sperm synthesis.
One-sided cryptorchus preserve fertility, but they are not used for breeding. A blocked testicle and undergoes transformations, increasing the risk of malignant processes in the testicles. In addition, the autoimmune reaction to the transformation and cell death in a blocked testicle can lead to a pathological reaction in the reduced tissues. Therefore, the only way out is total resection.
Symptoms of cryptorchidism in males
There are true and false cryptorchism. In the first case, the testicles do not appear in the scrotum due to mechanical or hormonal abnormalities, and its reduction is not manual. But there are similar symptoms of pathology that are not cryptorchidism. These are, for example, the so-called “wandering testicle,” in which the testicles are located in the scrotum, are normally developed, but during stress or hypothermia, they “hide” inside the body.
The reason for the abnormality is an increase in the sensitivity of the receptors of the spermatic cord or ligament that fixes the testicle, and the too large exit opening of the inguinal canal. To establish an accurate diagnosis is possible only with differential diagnosis.
Remaining for a long time inside the body, the testicles undergo degenerative changes in which normal spermatogenesis is impossible. Even after an operation to remove the testicles into the cavity of the scrotum, 84% of the operated pets do not recover spermatogenesis function.
In cryptorchids, first of all, Leyding cells suffer, which produce hormones that ensure the normal development and functioning of the reproductive organs and affect the frontal lobe of the pituitary gland. When cryptorchidism is observed not only the pathology of the reproductive system, but also changes in development due to an excess of pituitary hormones. When examining cryptorchus, it was found that they had various deviations:
- increase in height;
- weakened constitution;
- complete cretinism;
- abnormal hair coat;
- palatine prolapse;
- epilepsy, etc.
Cryptorchidism is often observed in dogs of small and dwarf breeds. Moreover, pathology is inherited with a set of signs - too long limbs, weakness and curvature of them, cretinism, etc.
Types of cryptorchidism
Depending on the location and severity of anomaly, the following types are distinguished:
- inherited inherited pathology;
- acquired as a result of external influence or systemic pathology;
- bilateral in the absence of both testicles;
- unilateral or monolateral;
- abdominal, when the testicles are localized in the retroperitoneal space;
- inguinal, in which the testicles remain in the inguinal canal.
Sometimes there is a complete absence of the testes, which can be detected only during an operational examination.
To clarify the diagnosis and determine the localization of the testicles use several methods:
- palpation examination. The doctor makes a palpatorny research of areas where the small egg can linger;
- ultrasound diagnostics. The method is not highly informative, as the result may be a result of intestinal gas contamination, insufficient medical qualifications. The method is used if the testicles cannot be detected by palpation or they are located inside the body;
- test for the introduction of gonadotropin. Testosterone levels are measured before the injection of the hormone and one hour after it. If after injection the activity of the sex hormone is increased, then the diagnosis is confirmed;
- Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive and highly informative method, using a laparoscope with a camera to examine the cavity of the large pelvis for the detection of the testicles.
In establishing an accurate diagnosis and exclusion of false cryptorchidism, the doctor develops a system for the treatment of pathology.
Treatment for cryptorchidism in dogs
In the diagnosis of cryptorchidism, it is recommended that males be neutered so as not to spoil the breed. If the pet will not participate in exhibitions and the continuation of the breed, then conduct conservative or surgical treatment, depending on the cause of the pathology.
With abnormal hormonal background, which caused the pathology, hormone therapy is prescribed. Treatment carried out in the period up to six months of age puppy, successfully in 20% of cases. The puppy is injected with drugs containing horiogonadotropin or gonadotropin-releasing hormone that stimulates the synthesis of its own luteinotropin, which promotes the elimination of testes. But this method of treatment should be applied only with the endocrine nature of the pathology. Otherwise, hormone therapy accelerates neoplastic changes in the testes.
For removal in the scrotum of the testes used surgical treatment. Orchipexia is an unpopular operation, since with a successful outcome, 20-30% of males restore fertility, and the dog can participate in the mating, spreading the abnormal gene.
The operation is performed under general anesthesia using an open method or a minimally invasive method using a laparotomy or laparoscopy method. The operation consists of one or two stages. Two-step is used when it is not possible to immediately fix the testicle in the scrotum. At the first stage, the gonad is removed and fixed on the thigh, and after a certain period of time it moves and is fixed in the scrotum.
In a one-step operation, removal and fixation of the testicles in the scrotum is carried out immediately. By trauma and recovery period, orchippexy is comparable to the operation of castration.
During the operation, a testicle biopsy is performed in order to exclude their malignant degeneration. Indications for emergency orchidpexy are testicular torsion, incarceration in the canal opening, the presence of an inguinal hernia, or testicular ectopia.
Mostly in males spend orchiectomy. The testicles should be resected for malnutrition, malignant degeneration or necrosis. In veterinary practice orchippexy is very rare.
Preparation for surgery and postoperative care
Before the operation, the dog is dewormed and fully inspected. Conduct the necessary research complex, which appoints a veterinarian. The animal must undergo a routine vaccination, at least one month before the surgical intervention. On the eve of the operation, the puppy is kept on a starvation diet with a restriction on the drinking regime. The operative field is shaved and processed.
In the postoperative period, the animal is monitored in the veterinary hospital. During the rehabilitation period, the animal cannot be bathed; it is necessary to treat the postoperative external sutures several times a day until they are completely healed. According to the indications may require the appointment of antibiotics and analgesics. So that the dog does not touch the stitches, they put on a limiting collar or special blanket. The stitches are removed 2 weeks after the intervention.
It is also necessary to monitor the well-being of the pet during the postoperative period, to limit physical activity for some time and to follow a diet. With timely initiated and adequately treated, the prognosis is positive. Breeders should be aware that a dog after orchippexy does not participate in breeding and exhibitions.