Colitis in dogs, or in another way, the inflammatory process in the walls of the colon or rectum, proceeds in much the same way as in humans, causing a complex of unpleasant symptoms. There are many reasons that can cause this disease, which determines its prevalence. Medicine offers an effective way to treat it. From the owner it is required to pay attention to the state of health of the pet and in due time to visit with it a veterinary clinic.
Causes of inflammation
Specialists distinguish between different types of illness. One of the classifications is based on the cause that caused the inflammatory process:
- The lymphocytic-plasmocyte form is a common type of colitis in dogs that has not been fully studied by etiology. When it develops in the mucosa, the level of plasmocyte cells and lymphocytes increases. Doctors associate its development with the pathological reaction of the immune system.
- The histiocytic form is the pathology of young boxers, experts suggest that this form has an autoimmune origin.
- The granulomatous form is a serious pathological condition that resembles the Crohn's syndrome in humans. With this disease in the large intestine appear certain cells that provoke inflammation.
- Eosinophilic form - eosinophils appear in the focus of the inflammatory process, which arise against the background of parasite infection or allergic manifestations.
Quite often, colitis in dogs is infectious, in most cases the following pathogens are pathogens:
- bacteria - clostridium, salmonella, E. coli, Campylobacter, etc.;
- viruses - coronaviruses, parvoviruses;
- fungus, causing histoplasmosis;
- parasites from the genus of nematodes;
- protozoa - Trichomonas, amoeba, balantidia, lamblia.
Often inflammation of the intestine develops against a background of food intolerance or an allergic reaction. The animal's organism can negatively react to excess of fats, food additives, specific proteins or lactose.
Another common cause of colitis is a disturbed diet. To earn disease the dog can, eating, eating low-quality food, and sometimes inedible objects. Also pathology is provoked by fatty, sharp or smoked dishes. In this case, the disease develops in an acute form and lasts for a short time.
Symptoms of colitis
If a four-legged pet is regularly disturbed by an upset stomach, then the owner should be worried, perhaps his dog is sick with colitis. In addition to diarrhea, the animal appears mucous and bloody impurity in the stool, this is a sign of exacerbation of the disease.
In a dog suffering from colitis, the act of defecation is accompanied by a great strain. In addition, there are pathological conditions:
- soreness in the stomach;
- frequent, plentiful burps;
- loud rumbling in the stomach and intestines;
- recurring emetic pushes;
- the tongue becomes covered with a grayish coating;
- For a long time the subfebrile temperature rises no more than 2-3 ° C;
- heart rate increases;
- An unpleasant odor emanates from the mouth;
- increased gassing, swelling;
- the dog refuses the usual food, during the walks begins to actively chew the grass;
- the body weight of the animal is markedly reduced.
Experts note that with chronic colitis, symptoms can vary, depending on various factors. Colitis is usually accompanied by vivid symptoms, but they can also be signs of a more serious illness, for example, colon tumors or intussusception, so it is not recommended to treat the pet yourself.
Often, due to untimely treatment or incorrect diagnosis, inflammation is significantly complicated - ulceration, perforated areas, erosion appear on the intestinal surface. In this case, the acute form of pathology becomes chronic.
Therapy, first of all, depends on the form of the disease. During the diagnosis the specialist should not only detect the presence of inflammation of the intestine, but also determine its type. If mucosal or bloody-mucous impregnations are found in the stool, then the pathological process is localized in the large intestine.
Palpation can reveal soreness, but not always with colitis there is pain syndrome. If colitis develops against a background of another systemic disease, then the results of blood and urine tests provide exhaustive information. In other cases, they only confirm the presence of inflammation in the body.
A veterinarian may prescribe a feces swab for laboratory testing. The analysis reveals microscopic pathogenic fungi and parasites that live in the gastrointestinal tract. For certain factors it is recommended to carry out a bacterial sowing, with the help of which it is possible to identify the causative agent of infectious colitis and to select a suitable antibacterial agent.
Using the radiograph of the peritoneum and ultrasound examination of this region, it is possible to identify the majority of possible disorders:
- presence of foreign objects in the lumen of the large intestine;
- compression by faeces;
- thickening and thickening of the intestinal wall;
- an increase in the size of lymph nodes, etc.
It is noted that examination by ultrasound does not always allow to assess the complete clinical picture, interfere with the study may be increased gassing in the intestine.
If during the initial diagnosis the specialist identifies seals, neoplasms or excessively enlarged lymph nodes, then in the future more specific diagnostic measures, for example, colonoscopy, will be used.
This technique allows a more detailed and thorough examination of the area of the large intestine. The pet is given a drug that has a strong laxative effect in order to completely empty the intestines, then a probe is inserted into the anus and equipped with a video camera at the end for better visualization.
The image of the internal organ is displayed on the monitor and allows for better examination of the damaged mucosa and simultaneously to localize the active inflammatory focus. Also, the probe has a special device that makes it possible during the procedure to take biomaterial biopsy for biopsy, that is, to obtain a small sample of the tissues of the neoplasm or of the compaction, if any.
In addition, specialists can prescribe a minimally invasive procedure - laparoscopy, in which the endoscope is inserted through the peritoneal wall. This is the most informative technique.
Treatment of colitis in dogs
Therapeutic measures depend on the form of the disease. In acute inflammation, the pet is recommended first of all for therapeutic fasting, lasting up to 2 days. This allows you to quickly rid the dog of diarrhea.
After a diet is prescribed - in the diet include foods rich in fiber, and remove foods high in fat. Fatty meat and butter from the menu are excluded, add vegetable oils to the food. It is best to feed the patient fit dietary types of meat - rabbit, chicken and turkey.
It is impossible at this time to feed the dog with poor-quality production feeds, which include artificial flavors, dyes and other harmful additives. Such components are often the cause of the inflammatory process in the gastrointestinal tract.
Treatment also includes medical therapy:
- the animal is injected with a solution of potassium chloride - the liquid restores the water-electrolyte balance;
- appointed Loperamide - a drug that improves mobility of the colon;
- medications Tylosin or Metronidazole are recommended for the treatment of a disease caused by clostridia.
Chronic colitis requires a slightly different approach, the quadruped patient is given enemas. It is possible to prescribe the following medicines: Sulfasalazine, Mesalazine, Prednisolone, and others.
The most difficult treatment is ulcerative form of the disease, since most anti-inflammatory drugs in this case are useless. Rapid improvement can be achieved through the use of a rare antibacterial drug Enrofloxacin.
If the development of inflammation is associated with eating disorders or allergies, it is important to save the pet from an irritating factor. The dog will have to be fed according to the prescribed diet, and this causes a number of additional hassles.
When the exacerbation subsides, the pet can be transferred to specialized therapeutic feeds, which allow to restore the inflamed mucosa of the intestine and provide the body with all the necessary substances.
Such rations are in the assortment of many manufacturers, but it is better to give preference to products that have already won the trust of veterinarians and experienced breeders. Eucanuba, Hills, Pro Plan, Royal Kanin and others showed themselves well. In addition, they are shown to dogs, whose appetite deteriorated against the background of the disease.
Since it is often the cause of colitis is the infection of the animal with intestinal parasites, deworming should be carried out in a timely manner, using special antihelminthic drugs. If there are other pets in the house, then they should be waxed at one time.
An excellent prevention is to provide the pet with a proper, healthy diet. In the case of dry food, the product must be of good quality. With natural feeding, there are many restrictions that should be taken into account. Dogs often eat garbage on the street, and if the pet suffers from this bad habit, the owner should be on the alert.
If the pet is prone to intestinal pathologies, then it is more serious to treat any manifestations of the disorder. The risk group includes the following breeds: boxer, shar pei, French and English bulldogs, German shepherd.
Like most other diseases of the digestive tract, inflammation of the colon is best treated at the initial stage. Therefore, it is important as soon as possible to send the pet to the diagnosis and relieve him of the painful pathological manifestations.