Keratitis in dogs is an inflammatory disease of the visual system that affects the eye cornea. This pathology is quite common among pets. Keratitis causes discomfort to the animal and threatens with very serious complications, which can be prevented by competent, promptly started treatment and adherence to elementary preventive measures.
- Причины кератита у собак 1. Causes of keratitis in dogs
- Симптомы собачьего кератита 2. Symptoms of canine keratitis
- Разновидности кератитов у собак 3. Varieties of keratitis in dogs
- Методики лечения кератита у собак 4. Methods of treatment of keratitis in dogs
- Меры профилактики 5. Prevention measures
Causes of keratitis in dogs
The causes of the development and development of keratitis in dog representatives are quite diverse. However, veterinarians identify a number of factors that can trigger the development of such a disease. These include:
- Traumatic eye damage.
- Avitaminosis .
- Burn damage to the eye surface.
- Hepatitis infectious.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Disorders in the endocrine system.
- Weakened immunity.
- Diabetes .
- Increased tendency to allergic reactions .
- The plague .
- Eye contact with foreign bodies.
- Inflammatory processes localized in the field of organs of vision.
It should be emphasized that keratitis may be infectious or invasive in nature. Depending on the type of the disease, its occurrence may be triggered by specific viruses, adenoviruses, bacteria, pathogenic fungi — actinomycetes, or special filamentous parasites — teliasiasis.
Symptoms of canine keratitis
Regardless of the type and form of the course of this pathology, keratitis in dogs is manifested by specific characteristic symptoms:
- Copious tearing .
- The development of photophobia.
- Opacification of the cornea.
- Hyperemia of sclera and conjunctiva .
- The appearance of ophthalmic purulent character .
- The appearance of yellow, white and gray spots in the cornea.
- Redness of mucous membranes and eye protein.
- Frequent blinking.
- The roughness of the eye membrane.
- The appearance of dark stains, localized in the inner corners of the eye.
Keratitis in dogs is characterized by a rapid course, therefore, it is quite simple to diagnose this ailment. Opacification of the cornea can be detected almost two or three hours after the onset of the disease. The behavior of the pet changes significantly - the animal becomes nervous, restless, depressed and sluggish, hides from the light and constantly rubs its eyes with its paws.
If not treated promptly and the disease starts, then it begins to progress, causing the inflamed blood vessels to grow into the eye cornea, making it nodular and thickened.
It should be noted that keratitis is fraught with the development of such complications as the development of glaucoma, cataracts , perforation of the eye cornea, partial or complete loss of visual function. Therefore, having found the first signs of keratitis in a pet, you should immediately go to the veterinary clinic for examination by a veterinarian and the appointment of proper treatment.
Varieties of keratitis in dogs
Veterinary specialists distinguish several types of canine keratitis, which differ somewhat in pathogenesis, signs and features of occurrence:
- Purulent superficial type of keratitis - mainly occurs due to mechanical lesions of the mucous membranes of the eye. This form of keratitis is characterized by the appearance of a pronounced photophobia in the animal, profuse tearing and the appearance of purulent discharge.
- Parenchymal keratitis is microbial in nature. The disease can develop on the background of canine distemper, toxoplasmosis, or in the presence of wound lesions localized in the area of the ocular surface. The eyes of a sick animal begin to water strongly, the cornea becomes edematous, and characteristic spots and spots appear on the surface of the diseased animal. Quite often, parenchymal keratitis is accompanied by the development of iris or conjunctivitis.
- Acupuncture keratitis is one of the rarest forms of the disease, the exact causes of which have not been fully studied to date. The characteristic symptoms include the appearance of pearly cloudy spots on the surface of the affected eye. At the same time, the animal feels normal and its visual function does not deteriorate at all.
- Phylichenular keratitis - develops against the background of toxic poisoning or allergic reactions. In the opinion of veterinarians, such varieties of keratitis are most susceptible to collie dogs, as well as shepherd dogs. The disease is characterized by the appearance on the eye cornea of large bubbles of a grayish-white color. In the absence of timely treatment, they can merge and burst, resulting in the cornea acquires a reddish-gray color. Also flictenoural keratitis is characterized by thickening and tuberosity of the third century.
- Ulcerative keratitis occurs on the background of ulcerative lesion of the cornea. At the same time the surface of the eyeball becomes turbid and foggy. With a rather long course of the disease, the formation of open ulcer surfaces in the cornea area is possible.
Methods of treatment of keratitis in dogs
Keratitis responds quite well to therapy in the early stages of the pathology. Otherwise, the disease may become chronic, in which periods of remission alternate with acute relapses. Therefore, it is imperative that the treatment of keratitis in a pet was started in a timely manner.
Features of therapy depend on the type of disease, as well as the factors that provoked its development. First of all, the veterinarian eliminates the cause that led to the appearance of keratitis, only in this case, further therapy will bring positive, stable results.
Mandatory therapeutic procedures include daily washing of the lacrimal sacs with Furacilin, Rivanol or boric acid, which have an antispastic effect.
The therapeutic course is developed individually, depending on the type of keratitis. So, with superficial keratitis, levomycetin drops or sodium sulfacide, Novocain and Hydrocortisone injections are prescribed to the animal.
Purulent forms of the disease are treated with intramuscular injection of antibiotic drugs, as well as with oletetrin or erythromycin ointment.
With allergic keratitis, the provocative factor, the allergen, is eliminated first of all. After this, the dog is prescribed antihistamine medications and a special hypoallergenic diet .
For other types of keratitis, antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity, antiviral drugs, corticosteroids, injections of vitamins to strengthen the immune system, eye drops and antiseptic solutions for washing eyes are also prescribed to animals.
With a neglected form of the disease, after the relief of inflammation, tissue therapy may be recommended to the animal. In addition, lidaza and yellow mercury ointment are used to suck scars in the area of the eye cornea. In some particularly severe cases, surgical treatment with superficial keratectomy may be required.
It is necessary to emphasize that only a veterinarian should select specific medical preparations, determine the appropriate dosage and duration of the treatment course! In this case, the specialist takes into account such factors as the overall clinical picture, the form and stage of the disease, the breed and body weight of the animal.
On average, treatment of keratitis in dogs takes 1-2 months. With timely initiated therapy and compliance with the recommendations of the veterinarian, the overall prognosis for this disease is quite favorable. It is impossible to ignore the signs of keratosis, because in the absence of operative measures, this disease is fraught with permanent clouding of the cornea of the eye, impaired visual function and even complete blindness!
Prevention of keratosis in dogs involves compliance with simple recommendations:
- Regular vaccination of the animal against adenoviruses and herpes.
- It is necessary to try to prevent possible traumatic damage to the pet's eyes.
- Time to contact a specialist in case of conjunctivitis or other eye diseases in a dog.
- Be sure to monitor the balanced, rational nutrition of the animal to prevent the development of beriberi and weakening of the immune system.
- Provide the pet with proper care , regularly brush its hair and trim the hair coat located around the eyes.
- Rinse the dog's eyes regularly with cotton pads dipped in chamomile tea, tea leaves or boric acid solution.
Keratosis in dogs - quite well treatable. Observing the recommendations of a pet care specialist, you can prevent the development of undesirable consequences by achieving a complete cure of your pet - without complications and relapses!