Animals suffer no less often than humans. And they need treatment, including injecting drugs. Self-medication is not worth it, but sometimes, even before visiting a veterinary clinic, you need to inject an analgesic or, on the recommendation of a doctor, take injections at home. Therefore, every owner should know how to make a prick a dog.
- Общие рекомендации к инъекционной терапии 1. General recommendations for injection therapy
- Как правильно выбрать шприц 2. How to choose the right syringe
- Как рассчитать объем лекарства 3. How to calculate the amount of medicine
- Общие правила при наборе лекарств 4. General rules for the recruitment of drugs
- Методика введения лекарства под кожу 5. Method of administration of the drug under the skin
- Методика укола в толщу мышцы 6. Method of injection in the muscle mass
General recommendations for injection therapy
Dogs are given injections subcutaneously and intramuscularly. Recommendations for the administration of the medicine are given by the veterinarian or this information is specified in the instructions. The owner of the animal should carefully observe the recommended dosage and type of drug administration.
How to choose the right syringe
In order to maximally gently place the injection, you should correctly choose the volume of the syringe and the diameter of the needle. Dogs of small breeds and puppies can be injected with an insulin syringe. The diameter of insulin needles in syringes of different manufacturers is 0.3, 025, 0.23 mm. The length of the needle also varies (4-8 mm).
In some syringes for tuberculin injections, the length of the needle is 13-25 mm with a diameter of 0.3-0.5 mm. This makes it virtually painless to inject the drug into the subcutaneous fatty tissue. But such a syringe has a small volume. A standard insulin syringe holds 1.0 ml of the solution and, when a large dose of the drug is administered, it is not advisable to use it.
In addition, the sharp tip of the insulin needle quickly deforms, especially if the prick is placed in dense skin at the withers. It bends in the form of a hook, which is clearly visible with a strong optical magnification. Such deformation requires the application of greater force to insert the needle during repeated use and severely injures the tissues during extraction.
For medium to large breeds of dogs, larger syringes are required, since the calculation of the dose is carried out depending on the body weight of the animal. Medium sized syringes (2 or 5 ml) are used. In order to less damage to the tissue, you can put a smaller diameter needle with a suitable base to the cylinder of the large syringe.
When choosing the length of the needle should be guided by the place of delivery of the drug. If you need to put a shot subcutaneously, then the insulin syringe will successfully cope with the task. The length of the insulin needle does not require tracking the depth of immersion when the drug is administered to medium and large dogs. It just enough to not get into the muscle. But if you need to make an intramuscular injection, then the insulin syringe will not work and you need a longer needle.
In addition, when choosing a syringe and, especially the diameter of the needle, the viscosity of the preparation should be taken into account. Many veterinary drugs, especially prolonged action, are prepared on an oily basis. High density of the drug does not allow the use of small diameter needles. For their introduction it is recommended to use needles with a diameter of 0.5-0.7 mm.
The diameter of the needle, its length can be learned from the information placed on the syringe package. To help in choosing the diameter of the needle, their plastic base is made of different colors.
To stitch a dog, 8 types of syringes with a colored base are recommended:
- orange (0.5 mm);
- blue (0.6 mm);
- black (0,7mm);
- dark green (0.8 mm);
- yellow (0.9 mm);
- pink (1.2 mm).
And also need insulin.
How to calculate the amount of medicine
Before you take a syringe medicine, you need to read the scale on its body. In order to correctly calculate how much to gain medicine, it is recommended to determine the value of one division. To do this, from a larger value take less and divide by the number of "risks" between two large divisions.
For example, in a 5 ml syringe, the calculation formula is as follows: (3-2) / 5 = 0.2. Therefore, one division of the 5-cc syringe is 0.2 ml. An exception is insulin syringes. Since their flask contains only 1 ml of solution, between large divisions, for example between 1 and 2, contains only 0.2 ml.
The ability to correctly calculate the "price" of divisions on a syringe will allow not to lose a single drop of expensive medicine or to avoid complications when introducing extra milliliter of dangerous drugs. After the diameter of the needle and the volume of the syringe is selected, you should read the rules of how to inject the dog subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
General rules for the recruitment of drugs
Regardless of the type of preparation, there are general rules for dialing a solution in a syringe:
- Before the procedure, hands should be washed with soap and rubbed with alcohol or disinfectant.
- The needle of the syringe must be sterile, so you can not touch it with your hands.
- The neck of the ampoule can also be treated with alcohol.
- Cut at the mark with a special nail file and, clutching the fleece, gently prick.
- Insert the needle into the ampoule and, slowly pulling the piston, dial the necessary amount of the medicine.
- A syringe to turn the cannula upwards and, tapping the other hand on the bulb with the finger of the finger, make sure that the air bubbles accumulate at the base of the needle.
- Pressing on the piston, squeeze out air until the drop of medicine appears on the tip of the needle.
- If it is necessary to prepare a dog for medication administration, the needle is closed with a sterile cap and deposited.
It should be remembered that the medicine should be at room temperature. The introduction of a cold solution causes pain and can provoke inflammation of the tissues. The easiest way is to warm the medicine - hold and roll between the palms of the ampoule with the medicine or a syringe recruited.
If the ampoule is opened, but not all of the medicine is used, you can collect another syringe and store it with a closed needle in the refrigerator. To keep an open ampoule and use the medicine from it the next day is impossible. In a syringe, you can store the medicine for no longer than 3 days.
Use only clearly marked ampoules, which show the name of the drug and expiration dates. Before prescribing a syringe, you must read the instruction - some preparations must be mixed before shipment and administration, shaking the ampoule. Containers with worn out markings must be discarded, even if the owner remembers what kind of medicine is. Do not put the life and health of the pet at risk.
There must be an instruction to the preparation to know exactly the mode of administration. So, for example, Diphenhydramine can be administered only intramuscularly or intravenously. Calcium chloride is injected exclusively into the vein, and Essentiale H is administered only intramuscularly. An improperly chosen site of drug delivery can cause an abscess or tissue necrosis. If the owner is not sure how to properly put a prick a pet needs to consult a veterinarian.
It is not necessary to collect several medications in the reservoir, unless it is specified in the instructions or recommended by the veterinarian. Not all medicines can be combined. Some weaken each other's action, others enter into chemical reactions with the formation of toxic substances.
Method of administration of the drug under the skin
The most commonly used area for subcutaneous injection is the withers - the place of honey with the shoulder paddles. There are few nerve endings here, and even an inexperienced master can be sure that he will not cause severe pain to the animal. But it should be borne in mind that the skin in this area is thicker, and a needle of small diameter can deform or break. Enter it slowly, carefully.
Subcutaneous injection can be done between the lower part of the lateral surface of the belly and the convex part of the thigh. The skin is grasped with fingers in a crease, a little is pulled upwards, fingers are spread apart with a hair and at an angle of 45 ° a needle is introduced. The needle in the thickness of the skin comes with resistance. Only when the needle "fails", you can be sure that the tip is under the skin and you should inject the drug.
Pre-treatment of the epidermis with disinfectant is not necessary. Dogs on the skin surface have their own antibacterial barrier. It is necessary to put injections only in place with intact epidermis.
Technique of injection in the muscle mass
The technique of intramuscular injection is somewhat more difficult, since there is a risk of getting into the capillary or nerve. A pin is placed in the withers or a large muscle on the thigh. In withers it is better to introduce painful drugs. In the thigh, they prick into the region from the side of the knee, above the knee fold. To clearly indicate the muscle, you can bend the dog's foot in the knee.
With intramuscular injection, the needle is inserted at right angles into the relaxed muscle. If the muscle is tense, you can gently massage it, calm the dog with your voice, and stroke it.
For dogs up to 10 kg, the needle is injected into the muscle by 0.7-1.5 mm. Representatives of medium and large breeds of the injection are made to a depth of 1.5-3.5 mm. Rapid administration of the drug can cause pain in the dog. Therefore, it is necessary to put the injection confidently, to introduce the needle slowly, monitoring the resistance and not allowing the needle to be deeply immersed in the tissue.
To burn alcohol the place of an injection should be in the event that when the needle is removed, blood appears. Do not forcibly coerce an animal. It is necessary to calm him down, prepare for injection morally. It is easier to do manipulations together, when one restrains the dog, soothes it, and the other quietly injects it.
With the correct site of injection and compliance with all the rules of complications does not happen. But for a while the owner should monitor the condition of the dog after the injection, and if the animal behaves unusually - limping, whining, nervous, it is necessary to show the animal to the vet. Every dog owner should be able to make injections, because of his ability and determination can depend on the life of the pet.