If the pet has got into the family as an adult or a grown-up pup, most owners are interested in the question of how to determine the age of the dog, and this is absolutely correct. After all, dogs of different ages have their needs both in nutrition, in walking and grooming.
Why to know the age of the pet
There are a number of reasons why owners should know how many pets they have:
- First, it is necessary to inoculate one's four-legged friend in time. Most vaccines are administered precisely by age. The young animal is grafted every 12 months. But when it reaches maturity, vaccination is much less frequent, as the immune system at this age begins to weaken and vaccines introduced with vaccination can harm the dog's body.
- Secondly, to determine the period suitable for knitting . This is especially important for the owners of bitches to calculate the beginning of estrus .
- Third, to calculate the convenient time for castration or sterilization . Not all people want to deal with offspring, so they resort to the services of veterinarians. But the fact is that too early operation, as well as in old age, can harm the dog. Most veterinarians recommend that this procedure be performed at the age of 6-7 years, without looking at whether the dog was born or not. Many owners castrate or sterilize the pet, in order to prolong its life cycle, to help avoid health problems - oncological formations, prostatitis, prolapse of the uterus, sexual infections, etc.
In addition, it is necessary to be able to determine the age of dogs for those who are engaged in volunteering, attach homeless animals, work in shelters and veterinary hospitals. After giving a four-legged friend to a new family, you need to provide all the available information about him.
There are several options for calculating the age category of dogs.
Basic methods of determining the age
It should start with the fact that experts divide the dogs into several age groups:
- puppies - dogs from birth and up to two months;
- young individuals - up to one and a half years;
- adult dogs - over 18 months.
Experts often use the method of assessing the teeth of a dog. This principle is based on the regularity of the appearance of teeth, their abrasion, and then the period of their replacement and abrasion of the permanent dentition. Like humans, dogs change once, and if she lived in suitable conditions, she had good nutrition and a proper bite, then you can determine her age as accurately as possible.
How to determine the age of the dog in the teeth? The following features are observed:
- if there is no tooth in the oral cavity at all, then we are talking about a newborn baby, of which the child is a maximum of two weeks;
- in three weeks the puppy begins the process of pricking fangs;
- The anterior incisors appear at the age of one month;
- on the 35th day in the puppy root teeth are cut, while the dairy;
- the baby has 1-2 months of normal development, the whole dentition is present.
If a puppy does not have all his teeth cut to two months, then he has significant health problems and it would not hurt to show it to a vet.
The next age sign in dogs is a change of teeth:
- In the period from 2 to 4 months, the puppies change the front incisors, including the hooks. Such a run-off at the age is determined by the fact that in different breeds the change of teeth begins in different ways.
- In the period from 3 to 5 months, lateral and middle teeth are replaced.
- By the half-year puppies have dairy fangs, and the growth of new ones begins.
- Complete replacement of teeth occurs at six, maximum eight months.
The final stage of calculating the age of puppies takes place in 12 months. The dog is already formed, has a muscular corset, often there is a full-fledged coat (but not all breeds). The teeth of one-year-old dogs are snow-white, with tubercles (they usually bite the dog's fleas ) and have a similarity to the serrated blade of the knife.
In the future, it is the tubercles, which have an unusual shape of the trident, and are the determining link for determining the age of the pet. It is to the level of their abrasion that professional veterinarians and cynologists look, if you want to tell how old the dog is. Their state is divided into several stages:
- Two years. At this time, the dog experiences abrasion of the tubercles on the lower hooks. After this, no special changes occur.
- Four years. By this period, the bumps of hooks on the upper jaw are erased, the enamel coating of the teeth loses its luster and becomes opaque.
- Five years. There is a complete erasure of tubercles on all incisors, blunting of canines is often observed, the enamel acquires a noticeable yellow tinge.
- Six years. At this time, there are significant changes - incisors change shape (have concave), and the definition of the right bite becomes very difficult. The enamel turns yellow even more.
- Eight to ten years. Abrasion is pronounced, the fangs become dull, teeth, in addition to pronounced yellowness, can be covered with bloom. Quarrels are often observed.
- Older than ten years. At this age in dogs, teeth begin to stagger, fall out, often there is the formation of caries. This is the most obvious sign of the advanced age of the pet.
Other methods of determining the age
If there is no way to determine the age in the teeth, then you can try to do it by appearance and behavioral characteristics:
- A young pet has a well developed musculature, which can be groped when stroking. In addition, the young animal spends a little time to sleep, more while in motion.
- The old dog has a flabby muscular corset, and obesity is often diagnosed. The dog quickly gets tired on walks, more sleeps. Significant calluses appear on elbows and joints.
Similar signs are very similar to human, because the old man is much less active than the young man.
Determining the age of the state of the coat can not give reliable results, since the wool is affected not only by age, but also by a number of factors. In addition, in some breeds, it is generally absent.
But if there is a comprehensive evaluation of the qualities of the dog, then silky coat with shine is a sign of a young animal. And if it is dull, heterogeneous, with graying (especially in the muzzle), then this may indicate that the animal is elderly. But you should also know that gray hair may also be present in young individuals for pigmentation disorders.
You can try to determine the age of the pet in the eyes. The young dog's eyes are clear, most often with a cheerful, mischievous glint. The old dog has a certain turbidity of the eyes, especially the pupils, there is no transparency, there is no playfulness, no playful sparkle in the glance. Often the eyes become more deeply planted, the animal may have a decreased vision and various eye diseases . But the turbidity of the eyeball can also signal the presence of the disease.
Comparison of dog and human age
Many owners are interested in information on how to determine the age of the dog by human standards.
Modern specialists have found that the old system of calculation, where one person's year is equal to seven years of the dog, is absolutely wrong. After all, the development of dogs takes place differently in different life periods. For example, only in the first year of life the animal undergoes a lot of changes - from a dairy puppy to a sexually mature dog, that is, when compared with a person - from a newborn baby to a 16-year-old. It turns out that the seven-year calculation is not at all suitable for these calculations.
In two years the dog corresponds to 25 human years, that is, it is already fully developed, an adult animal. That is, for a year the pet overcomes the ten-year human period, he becomes more serious and obedient, his behavior is significantly different from puppy.
After two years, the development of a pet is significantly slowed down. And it is from this time you can make a classic calculation - 1 year is 7. But in this case, taking into account the individuality of the dog and its belonging to a particular breed, the result will be averaged.
Everyone knows that dogs of small breeds do not age as fast as big dogs, and their life cycle is much longer. Their age is calculated on the basis that one year corresponds to five human. Dogs of medium size live for six human years, and representatives of large breeds - seven.
Attentive attitude to your beloved dog, good and caring care will help to keep her healthy and prolong her youth.