Before you buy a thoroughbred pet, you should know that only a specialist and a DNA test can accurately determine whether a pure dog is a dog, or a hybrid. Doing this will not be necessary if the dog is provided with a pedigree, but what if it was purchased without documents? Or did I accidentally hit the house? There are several criteria, according to which it is possible, albeit approximately, but to understand how to determine the breed of a dog.
Basic methods for determining the species
It is worth noting that if the dog is mestizo, then there is no way to determine the attitude of the pet to any breed in puppyhood. Often, the signs of the breed are manifested only for a year, but this can not be guaranteed by anyone.
Of course, if we are talking about dogs with pronounced breed characteristics, for example, taxis, or sharpee, then they can be seen in a dairy puppy.
In the absence of experience, it is very difficult to identify even a purebred puppy, so buying with hands always carries certain risks. A dog that does not have documents is considered mongrel, even if its parents are clean blood. But this does not mean that it has bad qualities or will not have defining features. This only indicates that the owners need to be extremely attentive to the characteristics of the puppy, and it is better to consult a dog breeder or breeders of this breed.
If it is necessary to determine the breed in an adult dog, then you can independently analyze the available signs by writing them down, and reread a lot of information.
If the dog "noblewoman" is not in the first generation, then, most likely, it will not be able to find out the signs of the breed. But this is not a cause for frustration, as quite often, mongrel four-legged surpass the intellect of their titled fellows. And with health, and duration of a life cycle at them business are much better.
Species of dogs
If you know at least the main criteria, then it is possible to attribute the existing signs to a particular breed.
Dogs, first of all, are divided into the following types:
- Purebred, thoroughbred, thoroughbred. This is a dog with a pedigree and a special electronic chip, on which a certain number is applied. In addition, such dogs are branded. Learn about the origin, both the dog itself and its ancestors, in this case, it's easy - you need to contact the veterinary clinic or any club of dog breeders.
- Phenotype. If the pet is a German shepherd, or one in one dachshund, but does not have supporting documents, then before it gets a "zero pedigree" it will be considered asbred.
- Metis. This definition refers to all dogs with undetermined origin, those whose parents (one or both) do not belong to any breed. If a person decides to get a puppy from a thoroughbred bitch and an unknown father, then he should be ready to have a pet, if not immediately, but show signs of irregularity or a mixture of phenotypes.
Methods for determining the breed
Of course, if there is a stigma, then, in most cases, the phenotype will be noticeable, and it will not be difficult to learn about the breed of the dog. In other cases, you will have to work hard and pay attention to a number of factors:
- Determination of the breed by age. Any signs of the breed have a dependence on the age of the dog , which is determined by the state of the teeth. Special exhibition schedules and schemes are developed, according to which the time of replacement of milk teeth or abrasion of constants is calculated. But you can rely on this data only if the dog grows and develops strictly according to plan , it has a put bite and feeds it in a balanced manner. Practice shows that you can meet a young dog with bad, worn teeth or a puppy with tartar. The only thing that works in any case is the same period of teeth change that occurs between 4 and 7 months.
- Dimensions of dogs. This is one of the most important criteria for determining the breed. The size of the animal is taken from its weight and height:
- miniature dog - maximum weight 5 kg, height 30 cm;
- small - 5-12 kg, height 30-40 cm;
- medium size - 12-20 kg, 40-55 cm;
- large - 20-30 kg, 55-65 cm;
- very large - 30-50 kg, 65-75 cm;
- a giant dog weighing more than 50 kg and more than 75 cm.
When targeting the dimensions of the animal, it is necessary to pay attention to its age. Determining the size of the dog in puppyhood is incorrect. As usual, puppies have a disproportionate structure of the trunk - a large head and paws, a ball-shaped abdomen. In addition, all puppies are clumsy, can not avoid dangers in time and are afraid of sudden movements and sounds, even minor ones.
- Types of wool cover. There is a conditional division of dogs into the following varieties:
- The naked. The coat is completely missing. Also in this category include dogs with a small fluff on the body, a tuft or a small amount of wool on the paws.
- Shorthair. The dog is covered with a uniform layer of wool with a maximum length of 1 cm. At the same time, it stands vertically.
- Semi-long-haired. The length of the wool varies from one to four centimeters. In most cases, dogs with such a coat have an undercoat (down hair), sometimes a thick coat on the collar and the riding breeches. On the abdomen, the hair may be absent.
- Long-haired. The wool is longer than 4 cm, there is a dense, thick undercoat, pronounced collar and riding breeches. Most often a large area of the abdomen overgrown with hair.
It is worth noting that in the warm season the dog may lack an undercoat, and a long-haired female can have the appearance of a semi-longhaired dog.
- The structure of the bony corset. If the definition of the breed is carried out from the photo, then you can analyze the type of body structure. Measuring the width of the sternum, back, pelvis, paws and total body length, it will be possible to weed out a lot of rocks, greatly easing the task. The backbone of dogs has its own division:
- Narrow. The size of the chest is equal or close to the width of the pelvis. In most cases, such indicators indicate that the pet has excellent running data. In this case, it is worth looking for the dog's belonging to the hounds and the greyhound breeds.
- Average. The size of the sternum is the same as that of the pelvis, or wider. This is the most extensive group of dogs, to which almost all medium-sized service breeds are ranked. Under these dimensions, fees also fall. and German Shepherds.
- Wide. In dogs with such a backbone, a powerful, developed thorax and a heavy, wide pelvis. Of course, such a pet will have large dimensions and if it has a long wool, then, most likely, it belongs to the shepherd breeds - Caucasian , Central European shepherd, and others.
- Shortened. Already at first glance, the animal looks like a square. In this case, short legs are often observed, but not always.
- Extended. A dog with such a backbone has a body of rectangular shape, the hind legs slightly exceed the length of the front - this is especially noticeable when the pet takes up the stand.
Features of the structure of the body
In addition, there are many features that can be used to classify a dog as a specific breed:
- Type of ears - they can be very small or disproportionately large, stand a house or hang, be cut off or have average dimensions.
- Type of tail - long, short, straight or curled in the ring, raised above the spine level or lowered; covered with thick long hair or short, docked or not.
- Posture type - dogs have a straight back and a descending one.
- Type of skin - tightly fitting, dense or has excess in the form of folds.
- Type of coat - sometimes the breed can be identified by the presence of a beard, wool over the eyes, a certain covering of the paws.
- Type of color - the presence of scorpions, spots, strict color distribution, brindle color.
In addition, representatives of different breeds have their "working" qualities. A dog-hunter outdoors will sniff the air, and take a stand, seeing the anticipated prey. Deep instincts are observed in dogs of shepherds. Having met a pet - a cow or a sheep, a dog can begin to fulfill its duties.
If the pet does not show interest in hunting, grazing and does not bring a stick, then most likely it is also intended for an important matter - to be betrayed by a friend and companion.
In any case, whatever breed the pet belongs to, he will be a reliable protector, an excellent hunter, and a best friend, and a faithful companion if the owner loves and cares for him.