This pathology is associated with increased pressure inside the eye, which occurs against the background of any disease of this organ. This is a serious illness, capable in some cases of depriving pets of sight, considerably complicating their life. So, glaucoma in dogs and other domestic animals requires compulsory treatment, and the owners need to be more attentive to their pets.
Causes of glaucoma in dogs
There are many factors that, if not directly, indirectly, provoke the appearance of glaucoma, increasing risks. In some cases, pathology is associated with the breed of the animal.
At the initial stages, the disease does not manifest itself in any way, it usually appears only with significant progression. Therefore, if the owner has the slightest suspicion of a possible change in the sight of the pet, it is worthwhile to undergo preventive diagnostics.
The following conditions and phenomena can affect the deterioration of the dog's vision:
- The risk group includes representatives of the following breeds: spaniel, beagle, Dalmatian, Husky, Samoyed Laika, hounds, labradors.
- If you do not treat chronic eye ailments, including conjunctivitis, then it is possible to develop irreversible processes leading to a subsequent blindness.
- Therapy of the organs of vision with the help of steroids significantly increases the risk of glaucoma, and the disease can rapidly progress.
- Age of the pet - in older dogs glaucoma is diagnosed more often than in young individuals.
- Genetic tendency - owners are advised to ask whether there was a similar disease in the genus and the pet, usually it is indicated in the pedigree. If the answer is positive, then it is advisable to bring the pet to the veterinarian regularly for a prophylactic examination.
- Trauma of the organ of vision - this factor is considered the main not only in glaucoma, but also in cataracts. In this case, the animal needs emergency medical care, as often irreversible processes quickly arise.
In addition, the disease often occurs against the background of other diseases: diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, etc.
Classification and types of disease
There are several types and forms of pathology. Depending on the cause of the development of glaucoma, distinguish between primary and secondary disease. In the first case, the disease occurs in a healthy dog, with provoking factors and a tendency to be absent. In the second pathology is associated with existing eye diseases, a violation of the lens or uvitom.
In addition, glaucoma is divided, starting from the angle of the anterior chamber: closed, open or narrow. Both types of classification are used in this pathology and are found in a variety of variations:
- Hereditary form of the disease. Predisposition to pathology at the level of genes is quite strong, therefore, in diagnosing primary glaucoma, it is necessary to examine and treat not only the sick eye, but also the second one, which is quite healthy and has no signs of disturbance.
- Primary type of glaucoma with an open angle. This is a hereditary pathology, which primarily affects the beagle and poodle. Pathology is chronic, increasing intraocular pressure occurs slowly and gradually. Even with significant progression, the sight of the pupil remains.
- Goniodysplasia. As a rule, this primary glaucoma with a narrow angle affects Samoyed Laika, Labradors, Cockers, representatives of hounds. The disease is accompanied by severe symptoms, and if one eye is injured, the second one needs to be examined. There may be a decrease in intraocular pressure, but there is a risk that the angle will close and the dog will go blind.
Ultrasound is prescribed if there is an increase in the size of the eyeball.
Symptoms of the disease
Like most diseases, glaucoma begins to manifest only as it develops. Therefore, doctors recommend, at the slightest sign, to lead a pet to the clinic for examination. Progressive disease is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- redundant discharge of tear fluid;
- severe hyperemia of the mucous eye caused by episcleral edema;
- lethargy and apathy, the dog refuses active games and other favorite activities;
- turbidity of the sclera;
- an increase in the size of the visual organ, this phenomenon is also called the "bullish eye";
- painful not only in the eye, but also in the entire muzzle of the inflammatory process;
- total refusal to eat or a partial loss of appetite;
- closure - the pet does not want to communicate with family members or with other animals;
- the development of partial disorientation;
- with light fear, the dog tries to hide in a darker place;
- retina, optic nerve atrophy, and the dog becomes blind - this is the result of a strong pressure on the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
All the above symptoms of the disease are considered common, but their combination and intensity largely depend on the type of disease and the degree of its progression.
In addition, the primary form of pathology may not have any signs at all. In this case, it is possible to detect the disease only by measuring the intraocular pressure. Also this type of illness sometimes causes the following symptoms:
- swelling of the cornea of the eye;
- dilated pupil;
If the ailment develops a long period of time, the symptomatology becomes brighter, the symptoms intensify. Secondary disease has similar symptoms, but it is important to consider that they signal the development of the underlying pathology or underlying cause.
To identify the pathology of the eyes, specific methods are used with the use of special instruments:
- Tonometry. Using a tonometer - Schiotz or applanation, the animal measures the pressure inside the eye. In healthy dogs, this indicator varies between 15-25 mm Hg. Art. With an increase in this value, the dog is diagnosed with glaucoma, with a decrease in most often it will leave. The pressure should be the same in the right and left eye, the difference is more than 10 mm Hg. also considered as a sign of glaucoma.
- Gonioscopy. This method allows you to examine the anterior chamber of the eye, determine its angle, thereby revealing glaucoma, if present, or other diseases of the eye. The ophthalmologic procedure is carried out with the help of goniolins placed on the corneal surface. Because of the lens, the outgoing light is refracted and makes it possible to observe the angle and classify the pathological state.
Treatment of glaucoma
Veterinarians warn that it is not worth waiting for a complete cure. Unfortunately, the owners bring their pet to the veterinarian already with progressive glaucoma, when the condition of the sick animal deteriorates noticeably. And in this case, a large number - up to 35%, the nerve fibers of the organ have already died.
Therapy of the disease, started at an early stage, allows the animal to keep eyesight, but not restore it to its previous level. Often, specialists face negative results in the use of folk remedies. This is strictly forbidden, since such experiments usually result in the need to completely remove the eyeball in order to save the animal life.
Treatment includes the following aspects:
- Reduction of pressure inside the eye. Since glaucoma occurs because of high intraocular pressure, the first thing that experts care about is a decrease in indicators. For emergency care, the osmotic diuretic Mannitol is administered, which is administered intravenously.
- Cyclocryotherapy. The method that allows to stop the progression of glaucoma. It consists in the effect of cold on the ciliary body of the eye, which leads to a decrease in the production of the eye fluid and excludes the possibility of increasing the pressure. If therapy is carried out at the initial stage of the disease, a complete cessation of the pathological process is possible.
- Reception of funds normalizing the outflow of intraocular fluid and oppressive production:
- prostaglandins (Latanoprost, Travoprost);
- m-holinomimetiki (Pilocarpine, Acekledin, Fosfakol, Proserin) - have a pronounced hypotensive effect;
- adrenoblockers - nonselective (Timolol) and selective (Betaxolol) - reduce the secretion of intraocular fluid;
- adrenomimetics (Clonidine, Brimonidine);
- inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase (Azopt, Diakarb, Trusopt) - are able to suppress the production of fluid by 50% or more.
Selection of suitable medications is carried out by a specialist, based on the results of diagnosis, analysis and the condition of the animal. In addition, the doctor must identify the root cause of the pathology.
In the conditions of a special ophthalmological vet clinic, surgical intervention is performed, increasing the outflow of excess moisture (organ implanting the drainage tubes) or reducing the synthesis of moisture (partial destruction of the ciliary body by laser or cryodestruction).
But often medical and minimally invasive therapy does not give the desired result, then the veterinarian can recommend the enucleation - removal of the painful organ, or evisceration (exenteration) - also removal, but with the subsequent prosthetics of the eyeball.
Unfortunately, often the doctors get to animals with neglected form of the disease, suffering from severe pain and defeat of both eyeballs. In this situation, avoiding the removal of the affected organs will not work, especially since in most cases the animal has either a very weak vision or is completely lost.
Dogs that have experienced pain for a long time, and their vision has been steadily declining, adapt to the new conditions quite quickly. Thanks to a subtle sense of smell and excellent natural coordination, the pet gradually returns to its former life. But, naturally, he needs more care and care than his sighted brethren.
Glaucoma is a serious disease that can deprive the pet of vision. Therefore, with the existing predisposition, it is more often to pay attention to the eyes of the pet and not to forget about mandatory preventive examinations.