Our four-legged friends, despite stronger immunity and excellent health, can still get sick. Moreover, their diseases are often the same as in humans. For example, hepatitis is often diagnosed as hepatitis, in dogs it is also associated with damage to the tissues of this important organ. Inflammation causes redness, cellular infiltration, dystrophy and other changes in the structure of the liver, provoking its failure. What threatens hepatitis, developed in dogs, and what do veterinarians suggest for his treatment?
- Виды болезни и причины развития патологии 1. Types of disease and causes of pathology
- Пути заражения 2. Ways of infection
- Что происходит в организме при гепатите 3. What happens in the body with hepatitis
- Клинические проявления 4. Clinical manifestations
- Как выявляется и лечится гепатит у собак 5. How can hepatitis be detected and treated in dogs?
- Профилактика гепатита у собак 6. Prevention of hepatitis in dogs
- Возможные осложнения 7. Possible complications
Types of disease and the causes of pathology
The classification divides the disease into two types:
- Infectious form . The causative agent of the disease is adenovirus type 1 and, as a rule, infectious hepatitis is diagnosed in puppies, weakened pets and dogs that are in close contact with infected animals. In puppies up to the age of one, the pathology can proceed without obvious symptoms and pass without special therapy. In this case, the owner may not know that his little pet suffered a similar disease. When the dog recovers, his body has already developed a stable immunity to the disease. But we are talking only about puppies, and even they do not all manage to get off so easily. Therefore, even with a slight indisposition, it is worth showing a pet to a veterinarian without waiting for an independent cure. Most often, without treatment, infectious hepatitis becomes chronic.
- Toxic form . There are many causes of this disease: long-term use of drugs with high toxicity, self-treatment of the pet with various "heavy" drugs, feeding the dog with poor-quality or spoiled food, toxic poisoning that occurs when the intestinal parasites are strongly infected, etc. Toxic hepatitis is often diagnosed in animals that have undergone piroplasmosis, salmonellosis, leptospirosis, etc. If toxic drugs are prescribed to the dog, it is advisable to give the patient and hepatoprotective agents that support liver activity and protect it from inflammatory processes.
Ways of infection
In this situation, an important aspect is the form of hepatitis. Infectious type of pathology dogs become infected during close communication, especially if they live together or are in contact with walking. A dog may catch an infection by eating or drinking from a sick dog's bowl, taking its toys, sniffing infected feces or tags.
Adenovirus is a survivable virus, and even after 3 months, being in the environment, it retains its activity. Therefore, if the owner knows that a dog suffering from this disease was walking at the site, it is worth changing the walking place.
Toxic hepatitis is considered to be a non-contagious form of the disease, and even when it comes into contact with a sick animal, a pet cannot get infected. After all, the disease develops against the background of toxin poisoning.
At risk are animals infected with worms: during the life of worms and larvae in the body of an animal poisonous toxins in large quantities are released.
What happens in the body with hepatitis
In fact, under the name of hepatitis hide all inflammatory processes localized in the tissues of the liver. This pathology is often accompanied by other diseases affecting the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Hepatitis negatively affects the state of the gallbladder and bile ducts.
With this disease, there are deep violations of metabolic processes: protein, carbohydrate and fat, pigment, there is a breakdown of the cells of the affected organ. In dogs, liver inflammation is rarely an independent disease and more often acts as a secondary malady arising against the background of existing infections.
Hepatitis develops due to tissue degeneration, in which the destruction of hepatocytes, inflammation, death or proliferation of connective tissues occurs. In pathology, normal tissue is replaced by damaged one.
The inflammatory process in the liver provokes stagnation - cholestasis, the organ itself becomes larger, the spleen is also enlarged, the so-called hepatolienal syndrome develops. Naturally, the affected liver is not able to function normally, detoxification, protein-forming, and other functions are impaired.
With the development of this pathology, the following symptoms appear:
- An increase in body size . In a healthy state, the liver does not protrude beyond the last rib (it is necessary to look to the right), in case of pathology, its noticeable bulging from under the costal arch is observed. If the organ is enlarged slightly, it is not always possible to detect pathology during palpation. It is possible to reveal changes by means of ultrasonography. When the liver acquires enormous dimensions, the animal experiences severe pain during probing and shows this in every way: it can whine, arch out, and begin to distance itself from the person.
- The activity of the body is violated . Pathology negatively affects all functions of the body.
- Yellowing of the mucous membranes and skin . Yellowness can be called the clearest sign of hepatitis. In the chronic form or the initial manifestation of the disease, the sclera of the eyes, skin and mucosa acquire a faint yellowish tint.
- Emetic urges and diarrhea . Feces become light, with a bile mixture. With the progression of the pathological process in the feces, blood streaks are noticeable, giving the feces a brown color.
- In addition, bile pigments, increasing in blood, affect the quality of urine , dyeing it in a dark, brownish tint. But feces almost discolor.
- Against the background of hepatitis, it is possible to increase the temperature indicators of the body, the heartbeat becomes arrhythmic.
- At the initial stage of development of the pathology of the animal, the appetite disappears, the pet is sluggish, apathetic . But the owner may not associate such a condition with an inflammatory process in the liver. It will require blood biochemistry.
This viral disease accompanies significant fever, up to critical elevations, profuse vomiting, and loose stools. Inflammation affects the surface of the tonsils, and the dog has difficulty eating. Also, it does not give your pet the opportunity to fully turn his head.
Hepatitis often causes keratitis - an eye disease in which the corneal layer of the organ of vision becomes cloudy. More often pathology affects both eyes.
How can hepatitis be detected and treated in dogs?
In order to accurately determine the disease and its form, blood, urine is taken for analysis, and biochemical examination of biological fluids is also carried out.
In addition, the specialist must apply differential diagnostics to distinguish hepatitis from other diseases with similar symptoms. You can confuse liver inflammation with cirrhosis, hepatosis, pulmonary infections, distemper carnivorous. After it is possible to collect damaged liver tissue for histological examination.
The effectiveness of therapy depends largely on how far the disease has progressed. Experts warn - illiterate treatment at home can not only aggravate the pathological processes, but also cause the death of the sick pet.
A common therapeutic regimen used by veterinarians is as follows:
- adherence to the diet - remove fatty foods from the diet, it is recommended to give the dog medicinal herbal teas, weak broths from meat and fish;
- fluids are injected into the body with antitoxic effects — glucose solutions, Ringer's solutions;
- plasma-substituting agents are assigned to restore protein reserves;
- for relief from pain, painkillers with an analgesic effect are recommended;
- hepatoprotective drugs - protect the cells of the inflamed organ from further destruction;
- diuretic drugs;
- in case of infectious hepatitis, antibiotic therapy or antiviral drugs are required.
Used complex therapy, which is prescribed exclusively by a veterinarian.
Prevention of hepatitis in dogs
For prophylactic purposes, a special vaccine has been developed that allows the animal body to develop its own immunity. Since the dog may become infected during contact with a sick animal, the owner should keep track of his circle of communication, not allow him to eat and eat on the street.
If the pet has a predisposition to liver diseases, then it is recommended to go to the veterinarian every six months and take a blood biochemistry.
The liver is a vital organ that performs many functions, so its inflammation without timely treatment can cause a number of complications:
- the risk of inflammation in the kidneys;
- acute organ failure;
- chronic disease;
- blood coagulation disorders, etc.
Hepatitis can pass unnoticed as well as cause serious violations. Therefore, the owner of the dog should be attentive to the health of his pet and not ignore the emerging symptoms.