Friends of our four-legged, despite the stronger immunity and excellent health, can still fall ill. And their diseases are often the same as in humans. For example, hepatic inflammation is often diagnosed, in dogs it is also associated with tissue damage of this important organ. Inflammation causes redness, cellular infiltration, dystrophy and other changes in the structure of the liver, provoking its insufficiency. What threatens hepatitis, developed in dogs, and what do veterinarians offer for its treatment?
- Виды болезни и причины развития патологии 1. Types of the disease and the causes of the development of pathology
- Пути заражения 2. Ways of infection
- Что происходит в организме при гепатите 3. What happens in the body with hepatitis
- Клинические проявления 4. Clinical manifestations
- Как выявляется и лечится гепатит у собак 5. How is hepatitis diagnosed and treated in dogs?
- Профилактика гепатита у собак 6. Prophylaxis of hepatitis in dogs
- Возможные осложнения 7. Possible complications
Types of the disease and the causes of the development of pathology
The classification divides the disease into two types:
- Infectious form . The causative agent of the disease is type 1 adenovirus and, as a rule, infectious hepatitis is diagnosed in puppies, weakened pets and dogs closely in contact with infected animals. In puppies up to one-year-old age, the pathology can proceed without obvious symptoms and pass without special therapy. In this case, the owner may not know that his little pet has suffered a similar disease. When the dog recovers, a stable immunity to the disease has already been developed in his body. But we are talking only about puppies, and even they do not all manage to get off so easily. Therefore, even with a slight indisposition, it is worthwhile to show the pet to the veterinarian, without waiting for an independent cure. Most often without therapy, infectious hepatitis acquires a chronic course.
- Toxic form . There are many causes of this disease: long-term use of medications with high toxicity, self-treatment of the pet with various "heavy" drugs, feeding the dog with poor-quality or spoiled food, toxic poisoning that occurs when the intestinal parasites are infected in large quantities, etc. Toxic hepatitis is often diagnosed in animals after pyroplasmosis, salmonellosis, leptospirosis, etc. If a dog is prescribed toxic drugs, it is desirable to give the patient and hepatoprotective agents that support the activity of the liver and protect it from inflammation.
Ways of infection
In this situation, an important aspect is the form of hepatitis. Infectious type of pathology, the dogs become infected during close intercourse, especially if they live together or contact when they are walking. The dog can catch the infection by eating or drinking from a bowl of a sick dog, taking her toys, sniffing infected feces or tags.
Adenovirus is a viable virus, and even after 3 months, while in the external environment, it keeps its activity. Therefore, if the owner knows that a dog suffering from this disease was walking on the platform, it is worth changing the place of walks.
Toxic hepatitis is considered to be an infectious form of the disease, and even when in contact with a sick animal, the pet will not be able to become infected. After all, the ailment develops against the background of poisoning with toxins.
The animals that are infected by worms get into the risk group: during the life of worms and larvae, poisonous toxins are released into the animal's body in large quantities.
What happens in the body with hepatitis
In fact, under the name of hepatitis all inflammatory processes localized in liver tissues are concealed. This pathology is often accompanied by other diseases affecting the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Hepatitis has a negative effect on the condition of the gallbladder and bile ducts.
With this disease, profound disturbances of metabolic processes occur: protein, carbohydrate-fatty, pigmented, the cell disintegration of the affected organ. In dogs, liver inflammation is rarely an independent disease and often acts as a secondary ailment that occurs against the background of existing infections.
Hepatitis develops due to tissue dystrophy, in which hepatocytes are destroyed, inflammation, death or proliferation of connective tissue. In pathology, normal tissue is replaced by a damaged tissue.
The inflammatory process in the liver provokes stagnant phenomena - cholestasis, the organ itself becomes larger, the spleen is also increased, so-called hepatolienal syndrome develops. Naturally, the affected liver is not able to function normally, detoxification, protein-forming and other functions are violated.
With the development of this pathology the following symptoms appear:
- Increase in size . In a healthy state, the liver does not protrude beyond the last rib (it is necessary to look at the right), with pathology, its prominent bulging from beneath the costal arch is observed. If the organ is enlarged slightly, it is not always possible to detect a pathology in palpation. You can detect changes with the help of ultrasound. When the liver becomes huge, during the probing the animal experiences severe pain and in every possible way it shows: it can whine, arch with an arch, starts to move away from the person.
- Activity of the body is violated . Pathology negatively affects all functions of the body.
- Yellowing of mucous membranes and skin . Yellowness can be called the most obvious sign of hepatitis. In the chronic form or primary manifestation of the disease of sclera of the eye, the skin and mucosa acquire a slightly noticeable yellowish hue.
- Vomiting and diarrhea . Faeces become light, with a bile admixture. With the progression of the pathological process in the stool, streaks of blood are visible, imparting feces to brown color.
- In addition, bile pigments, increasing in blood, affect the quality of urine , staining it in a dark, brownish hue. But the feces are almost discolored.
- Against the background of hepatitis, it is possible to raise the body's temperature indices , the heartbeat becomes arrhythmic.
- At the initial stage of development of pathology in the animal, the appetite is lost, the pet is flaccid, apathetic . But the owner may not associate such a condition with the inflammatory process in the liver. It will require blood biochemistry.
This viral disease accompanies a significant increase in temperature, right up to the critical markers, abundant vomiting, and loose stools. Inflammation affects the surface of the tonsils, and the dog experiences difficulty in eating. Also, this does not give the pet the opportunity to fully turn his head.
Hepatitis often causes keratitis - eye disease, in which the corneal layer of the organ of vision becomes cloudy. Most pathology affects both eyes.
How is hepatitis diagnosed and treated in dogs?
To accurately determine the disease and its form, blood and urine are taken for analysis, and a biochemical study of biological fluids is also carried out.
In addition, the specialist necessarily applies differential diagnosis, which makes it possible to distinguish hepatitis from other diseases that have a similar symptomatology. To confuse the inflammation of the liver can be with cirrhosis, hepatosis, pulmonary infections, plague carnivorous. After a possible collection of damaged liver tissue for histological examination.
The effectiveness of therapy largely depends on how much the disease has progressed. Experts warn - illiterate treatment at home can not only exacerbate pathological processes, but also cause the death of a sick pet.
A common therapeutic scheme used by veterinarians is as follows:
- compliance with the diet - from the diet to remove fatty foods, it is recommended that the dog give herbal herbal decoctions, weak broths of meat and fish;
- drip into the body inject liquids that have an antitoxic effect - solutions of glucose, Ringer;
- To restore protein stocks, plasma substitution agents are prescribed;
- To get rid of pain, drugs with anesthetic effect are recommended;
- hepatoprotective drugs - protect the cells of the inflamed organ from further destruction;
- diuretic medications;
- When infectious hepatitis requires antibiotic therapy or antiviral drugs.
Complex therapy is used, which is prescribed exclusively by the veterinarian.
Prophylaxis of hepatitis in dogs
For preventive purposes, a special vaccine has been developed that allows the animal's organism to develop its own immunity. Since the dog can get infected during a contact with a sick animal, the owner should watch the circle of his communication, do not allow drinking and eat on the street.
If the pet has a predisposition to liver disease, it is recommended to consult the veterinarian every six months and take blood biochemistry.
The liver belongs to the vital organs performing many functions, therefore its inflammation without timely treatment can cause a number of complications:
- risk of spread of inflammation to the kidneys;
- acute organ failure;
- chronic form of the disease;
- blood clotting disorders, etc.
Hepatitis can both go unnoticed, and cause serious violations. Therefore, the owner of the dog should be attentive to the health of his pet and do not ignore the emerging symptoms.