Hematoma, or bruising, is not uncommon in active and mobile pets who are constantly seeking adventure. Pathologies may be insignificant or have a threatening appearance, but in any case they deserve attention. How to give first aid when a hematoma appears in dogs, and in what cases need medical help?
Types of hematomas
There is a classification according to which there are several types of hematomas, based on the type of damaged vessels. The bruise can be:
- venous - hemorrhage due to damage to the venous walls;
- arterial - damage affects the artery;
- mixed - occurs when the integrity of several blood vessels of the circulatory system is violated, it can be a vein, an artery. capillaries;
- pulsating - hematoma, which is the result of a defect in the walls of the aorta.
In addition, the location of the hematoma is:
- intermuscular - occurs between muscle tissues;
- subcutaneous - hemorrhage, localized under the skin;
- retroperitoneal - in the area of the peritoneum;
- intraorgan - is formed in the tissues of the internal organ;
- intracranial - blood accumulates in the brain;
- adrectal - appears in the rectal area.
Some hemorrhages do not bother the pet, while others can cause significant discomfort and even can worsen the general condition of the animal.
Causes and manifestations of hematoma
There are many situations that can cause hemorrhage:
- injury to the animal, accompanied by significant soft tissue bruises, bone fractures, rupture of blood vessels;
- the occurrence of microtraumas in the process of surgical intervention;
- bites of other dogs and other animals.
When bruising blood clots and resolves in liquid parts. White blood cells, leukocytes, are responsible for this process. Then, in areas with coagulated blood, connective tissue germinates. In some cases, a capsule filled with a liquid — a cystic formation — is formed from this material.
The risks of hematomas increase when the animal has reduced elasticity of the vascular walls and blood clotting. On the site with hemorrhage swelling appears. Most often this occurs immediately after the damage received. It quickly grows in size, its boundaries clearly delineated.
If a limb is injured, its mobility may be noticeably limited. The appearance of a hematoma may be accompanied by some changes in the state of the pet:
- an increase in body temperature at the site with a bruise is a sure sign of the development of an infection at the site of hemorrhage;
- lymph nodes may increase - this is the body's response to the pathogenic pathogen;
- deformation of the damaged organ is possible, its functionality is impaired.
Most often, hematomas of the auricles appear in dogs, often hemorrhage suppresses. This factor increases the likelihood of secondary infection.
If the hemorrhage does not stop for a long time, then the body temperature (up to critical marks) can greatly increase in the dog, and his general condition worsens. In this case, you should not hesitate and it is better to independently provide emergency assistance. Make the following recommended:
- Apply an ice or cold compress to the area of injury: ice placed in a bag, cloth moistened with cold water, or a heating pad filled with it. Such an event will help stop the bleeding and reduce pain, but it should be applied correctly. To prevent the ice from damaging the skin, it must be wrapped with a cloth. Compress can be held in one area for no longer than 15 minutes, which eliminates the likelihood of frostbite tissue. After 2-3 hours, the procedure is recommended to be repeated.
- The area of damage is allowed to treat with iodine solution - you can apply a mesh that has anti-inflammatory action.
- A tight bandage is applied to hematomas. It is best to use bandages for this. But if the dressing is done in the field, then you can take for this purpose any sterile material, a clean handkerchief or napkin is suitable.
If subcutaneous hemorrhage reaches a large size, then a paraffin compress can be applied. In addition, the effect of heat helps to accelerate the resorption process: warming under a special lamp, the use of warming ointments. But thermal procedures should be carried out after the swelling subsides, not earlier than a day after the appearance of a hematoma.
Watch a video about ear hematoma in dogs:
In the case of the appointment of conservative therapy, the veterinarian prescribes external agents: ointments, gels. A set of additional procedures is also carried out: exposure to the lamp, infrared radiation, etc. In some cases, surgical treatment is indispensable, and the specialist prescribes an operation. Similar intervention is required in the following situations:
- if extensive hemorrhage occurs;
- in the area of hemorrhage, the process of suppuration begins;
- if a hematoma forms in the auricle area.
In order for the treatment to give positive results, the veterinarian must examine the pet and select the appropriate method. Therapy involves several stages:
- accumulated blood is removed from the area of damage;
- a solution of novocaine and an antibiotic is introduced into this area;
- A thick bandage is applied over the wound.
If a hemorrhage occurs in the ear, then sometimes inflamed fluid is removed from it with a syringe:
- hematoma area is free of coat;
- skin is thoroughly wiped with an antiseptic - Chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, iodine solution;
- after in the upper part of the auricle the skin is punctured and the liquid is pulled off; at this moment it is important that the four-legged patient is well fixed and does not make sudden movements, complicating the procedure;
- after the hematoma is emptied, the needle is not removed from the ear, a special solution is injected through it, which includes antibiotic Dexamethasone and Novocain; The veterinarian determines the dosage individually, based on the size of the dog and the size of the hemorrhage.
After surgery, a specialist makes a series of recommendations for caring for a dog and prescribes medications. The owner should follow the designated rehabilitation scheme.
Dogs are injured quite often, so the owner should take care that such dangerous situations arise as rarely as possible. And if all the same trouble has occurred, it is necessary to act according to circumstances and do not let the recovery take place.