The Armenian Wolfhound or Gampr is a native breed that has lived in Armenia for more than 22 centuries. Due to the long isolation and diversity of climatic conditions, as well as spontaneous crossing and natural selection, the gampr differs from the shepherd dogs of Transcaucasia both in appearance and in character.
- История происхождения 1. History of origin
- Описание породы гампр (Армянский волкодав) 2. Description of the breed gampr (Armenian Wolfhound)
- Особенности характера 3. Characteristics
- Воспитание и дрессура 4. Education and training
- Уход и здоровье 5. Care and health
- Болезни породы 6. Diseases of the breed
- Как кормить питомца 7. How to feed a pet
- Содержание собаки 8. Keeping a dog
- Фото гампра (Армянского волкодава) 9. Photo of gampra (Armenian Wolfhound)
- Видео о гампре (Армянском волкодаве) 10. Video about gampre (Armenian wolfhound)
- Где купить щенка 11. Where to buy a puppy
History of origin
There are many material traces of antiquity of the breed in Armenia. This and well-preserved petroglyphs depicting hunting scenes with dogs, dated to the 1st c. BC. and historical documents relating to this period testifying to the participation in the military campaigns of the king Tigran II dogs, similar to modern gamprov.
The centuries of military and political upheavals in the history of Armenia reflected in the number and purity of the Armenian wolfhounds breed. The war with the Ottoman Empire led not only to the loss of a large part of the population, a significant territory, but also to the annexation of the gampra.
On its basis, several breeds of Turkish dogs were bred, which led to a decrease in the number of Gampra. Despite the fact that most of northeastern Turkey used to belong to Armenia, the Turks are trying to classify the Armenian wolfhound as a variety of Turkish breeds and even registered it under the name "Anatolian Karabash".
Armenian wolfhound is not recognized by FCI. However, in 2011, gampr is registered in the “working dog” section (No. 204) in the registry of the International Canine Union (IKU). About 2000 gampra are registered in Armenia today.
The most numerous population of Armenian wolfhounds in America (California). There the efforts of immigrants from Armenia and R. Meyer created the “Club of Armenian Gampra in America” (AGCA), which is fighting to preserve the naturalness of the breed.
Description of the breed gampr (Armenian Wolfhound)
From Armenian "gampr" is translated as "large, strong, powerful." Due to the natural selection, gampra is well adapted to local climatic conditions. It is ideally suited to perform its main task - the protection of the owner and his home, as well as the protection of herds from wolves and bears.
Due to the fact that the gampras were not subjected to selection according to the phenotype, they retained many features of the exterior of the ancient species. The size of the gampra varies from 63 cm in females to 70 cm in males. Weight can reach 45-90 kg. The dog looks strong, strong, harmonious. The wolfhound moves easily, smoothly, which, with its considerable size and well-developed musculature, does not leave the impression of being heavy or clumsy.
In accordance with the standard, gampry are as follows:
- The skull is massive with a large skull constituting 60% of the skull. The total length of the skull - 170-173 mm. The stopper is weakly expressed, the transition from the forehead to the nose is smoothed to such an extent that it represents an almost straight line. The forehead is flattened and wide, is 63-65 mm. Nose is large, pigmented black. Zygomatic arches flat, poorly defined.
- Jaws strong, wide, strong with a full set of white, tightly composed teeth. The bite is normal (scissor), which provides a strong grip.
- Eyes set deep, medium size, almond shape. The color of the iris - brown. The lids have a pigmented black edge that makes the dog's eyes expressive. Look attentive, intelligent and domineering. Such an expression of the eyes is characteristic of the breed and is observed even in puppies of several weeks of age.
- The ears are located slightly below the eye line, which visually makes the front of the dog even more powerful and impressive. They are medium in size and loose on cartilage. The tip is rounded and directed to the face. Ears can be cropped.
- The neck is of medium length, cone-shaped, and equipped with strong musculature.
- The body is somewhat stretched (108-110). The withers are well marked. The back is powerful, wide, straight. The croup is wide. The belly is taut.
- Thorax deep, fairly wide, with well-developed muscles. The lower edge is somewhat lower than the elbow joints.
- Limbs strong, muscular, straight. The hind legs are slightly straightened in the joints, so that when looking at the dog from the side there is a noticeable slight hindrance.
- The tail is set high, plump. In a state of calm, omitted, when moving or excited, rises above the line of the back. The dog keeps him in the form of a ring or half ring.
The adopted breed standard describes short-haired Gampra, but there are varieties with long hair.
Wool and possible colors
Both varieties are characterized by “double” wool. Thick undercoat allows dogs not to freeze even in the coldest winters in the mountains. The undercoat is so dense that it is not saturated with melt water and protects the body when it freezes on the top layer of the shirt.
In short-haired dogs, the length of the dog on the body does not exceed 2.5-6 cm. In long-haired dogs it can reach 15 cm. On the head and limbs, the coat is shorter.
Since the breed was formed with maximum adaptation to the surrounding conditions, the color has a masking value. Any type is allowed except for liver and brown. It is desirable to have a dark mask on the face.
At all times, the Armenian wolfhound was valued for independence in decision-making, exceptional dedication to the owner and courage. During the wars and the genocide of the Armenian population, the number of dogs sharply decreased. Since the invaders destroyed Gamprov, selflessly defending the host family and its property.
Gampr has a balanced, steady temperament. He is aware of his strength and understands how his appearance causes fear. But the dog also subtly feels love and respect. He will never bark without a reason, as if he understands that his awesome roar and barking can frighten a child.
Even settling down to rest, gampr chooses such a place from which the entire protected area is clearly visible. The famous Armenian breeder of gamprov Gurgen Hakobyan argues that no one person can choose a more advantageous position, even in unfamiliar territory, in order to keep it under constant vigilance.
Gurgen Hakobyan speaks with his pets as with adult sons, as these proud animals command respect. Gurgen believes that the intellectual development of his pet Urata exceeds the mental abilities of some people. A dog never blindly obeys orders. He chooses the tactics and strategy that allows him to fully perform the main function - to protect and protect.
Between the owner and the dog are not the relationship "master-servant", and friendly. Dog is difficult to force to attack a stranger, he must assess the degree of threat and decide to protect the owners and family.
The owner must win recognition and friendship dogs. Having appeared in the family, the gampr first shows its favor to its weaker members, who are most in need of its protection — children and women. From the owner the dog is waiting for respect, recognition of equal relations. If the owner shows indifference and detachment - the dog pays him the same.
With pets, gampr has a peaceful relationship. He considers them weak and demanding his protection.
Upbringing and training
Armenian wolfhound poorly trainable. Many dog experts believe that there is no need to train a dog, since the instinct of the guard and watchman is laid at her level of genes.
However, the dog needs to be raised from the first days of life. Gampras grow up late, and in the “teenage” age they have all the disadvantages of the puberty period of a person. He can be wayward, disobedient, lazy, cunning, reckless.
In order not to get an uncontrollable adult dog of impressive size and strength, it is necessary to start raising and socializing it as soon as possible. The owner must firmly, but without aggression, make it clear who is the "leader of the pack." Dogs are trained in search skills - to search for people and domestic animals lost in the mountains or caught in the snow captivity.
Breeders gamprov believe that to train dogs to participate in dog fighting - barbarism. This spoils the character of the dog, develops aggressiveness towards the species and "breaks" the natural character of the animal.
Care and health
Gampr is a working dog who has worked for centuries alongside a person living in harsh conditions. Therefore, the dog is unpretentious and does not need special care. However, this does not mean that you can forget about the dog.
Thick and dense undercoat requires combing, especially often it is necessary to do during seasonal molting. It is necessary to bathe dogs as they are polluted. If the dog does not have the opportunity to grind the claws naturally on a hard surface, then they must be trimmed and inspected to avoid cracks and delamination, injuries to the pads.
If the ears are not cropped, then they also need to periodically inspect and clean. Require care and cleaning the dog's teeth. Puppies for this procedure must be taught from an early age.
Gampra is difficult to maintain in a city apartment. Without realizing his “mission,” the dog may get bored. It requires a lot of space and contact with the person. If the dog is kept in a city apartment, then it must be walked often and for a long time, giving metered exercise.
Gampr has a very good health, in which an important role was played by the blood of wolves and an ideal adaptability to local conditions. Dogs are not susceptible to allergic reactions, have strong immunity and good resistance to local parasites.
One of the drawbacks is the tendency to diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Gampr is growing rapidly and gaining weight, which adversely affects the state of the bone joints. In dogs of this breed are noted:
- hip dysplasia;
- dislocations and subluxations of the elbow joints.
Good health does not protect gampra from viral and infectious diseases inherent in carnivorous - distemper, rabies. Therefore, they need vaccination against these deadly diseases.
Since the dog is on the street most of the time, it needs to be treated for fleas and ticks, periodically inspect wool and ears. Ear problems are sometimes found in gampra, but these are not breed defects, but negligence of the host.
How to feed a pet
Armenian wolfhound unpretentious in food. He will eat what the master will give him. However, it should be borne in mind that for proper formation, given the rapid growth, the dog requires a complete, balanced diet with a high content of proteins and carbohydrates. Proteins should be at least 40% of the total portion of the ration. This may be lean meat, offal. Meat can be given raw.
In addition to meat, the diet should include fish, as a source of phosphorus, an essential element for bone mineralization and proper skeleton structure. Fish must be freed from the bones and podvarit.
In addition to proteins, the dog's body requires carbohydrate intake to ensure the processes of metabolism, regeneration and growth. They will provide porridge, in which you can add a little vegetable oil, broth, boiled, stewed or raw vegetables. The frequency of feeding is the same as that of other dog breeds - twice a day in adults and 3-4 times in puppies.
Particular attention in the preparation of the diet should be paid to the prevention of diseases of the joints. To do this, you need to enter the food cartilage, tendons, bones. In addition, the diet supplement vitamin-mineral supplements that ensure the health of the musculoskeletal system. For the purposes of prophylaxis, you can give your dog chondroprotectors, which a veterinarian will recommend.
When choosing ready-made feeds, you should choose those that are designed for large and giant dogs. They have already introduced all the necessary additives to ensure the health and longevity of the animal. With proper care, feeding and regular veterinarian, a gampra can live 14-15 years.
Armenian wolfhound is not suitable for keeping in a city apartment. The best place to live is a country house with a large fenced area, which the dog can protect. So that the dog does not freeze and does not overheat, it needs an open-air cage or a shed, under which it will rest.
Shelter should not limit the view. The dog breeder told how, wanting to protect the dog from the severe frost (-30 ° C) and the piercing wind, he warmed the gazebo, in which the dog slept, with blankets. In the morning he saw that the blankets were torn and thrown away from the shelter, as they prevented the dog from monitoring the territory.
If the dog is in the aviary for a long time, then he needs to provide walks and physical activity. Gampr is happy if he can help the owner - guard the sheep, protect the house. Without the realization of natural instincts, he begins to get bored.
Photo gampra (Armenian wolfhound)
Video about gampre (Armenian wolfhound)
Where to buy a puppy
The cost of puppies in kennels is quite high and amounts to 200-1000 dollars. Previously, it was hard to buy gampra, as the export of dogs from Armenia was banned, and in the US they were expensive, now there are kennels in the Russian Federation and in Ukraine.
In Ukraine there is a kennel "Shamir", in which gamprov, taken out from Armenia in the 90s, have been successfully engaged in breeding for a long time. When Belarusians applied for the acquisition of puppies for the protection of agricultural land and livestock in the Kennel Union of Armenia, they were advised to buy dogs in the Shamir kennel, as their puppies are not inferior to the Armenian. Puppy gampra in the nursery is more than 3000 hryvnia.
Kennels "Gampr Legend of Armenia" and "Urmia" in Mineralnye Vody maintain a close relationship with the birthplace of wolfhounds, so the puppies purchased here comply with the standards and purebred.
Officially registered a new nursery of Armenian wolfhounds in Tbilisi (Georgia). "ARAX - BRNASHEN" is the first nursery in the territory of Georgia. Its owner is a doctor by specialty and editor of a journal engaged in the promotion of indigenous breeds. In Russia, the largest kennel gamprov is "Armenian Lion from Urartu".
Today, the motto of Armenian cynological clubs and nurseries engaged in breeding the breed is: "Gampr from sea to sea." Armenians are engaged not only in replenishment of livestock, attempts to standardize and recognize the long-haired variety of gampra, but also to widely popularize these amazing ancient dogs.