Armenian wolfhound or gamper is an aboriginal breed that lives in Armenia for more than 22 centuries. Due to the long isolation and variety of climatic conditions, as well as spontaneous crossings and natural selection, the gampra differs from the Caucasian shepherds both in appearance and in character.
- История происхождения 1. History of origin
- Описание породы гампр (Армянский волкодав) 2. Description of the breed gampr (Armenian wolfhound)
- Особенности характера 3. Characteristics of the character
- Воспитание и дрессура 4. Education and training
- Уход и здоровье 5. Care and health
- Болезни породы 6. Diseases of the breed
- Как кормить питомца 7. How to feed a pet
- Содержание собаки 8. The contents of the dog
- Фото гампра (Армянского волкодава) 9. Photo of a gampra (Armenian wolfhound)
- Видео о гампре (Армянском волкодаве) 10. Video about gampre (Armenian wolfhound)
- Где купить щенка 11. Where to buy a puppy
History of origin
There are many material traces of the ancient breed in Armenia. These are well-preserved petroglyphs depicting scenes of hunting with dogs dated to the 1st century. BC. and historical documents relating to this period, testifying to the participation in the military campaigns of King Tigran II of dogs, similar to modern gimmers.
Centuries of military and political turmoil in the history of Armenia affected the number and purity of the Armenian wolfhound breed. The war with the Ottoman Empire led not only to the loss of a large part of the population, a significant territory, but also to the annexation of the gampra.
Based on it, several breeds of Turkish dogs were bred, which led to a reduction in the number of gimmers. Despite the fact that most of the northeastern Turkey used to belong to Armenia, the Turks try to rank the Armenian wolfhound to a variety of Turkish breeds and even registered it under the name "Anatolian Karabash".
Armenian wolfhound is not recognized by FCI. However, in 2011, the gumpr is registered in the "working dog" section (No. 204) in the register of the International Cynological Union (IKU). Today, about 2,000 gauges are registered in Armenia.
The largest number of Armenian wolfhounds in America (California). There, the efforts of the immigrants from Armenia and R. Maier created the "Club of Armenian Gumpers in America" (AGCA), which struggles to preserve the naturalness of the breed.
Description of the breed gampr (Armenian wolfhound)
From Armenian "gampr" is translated as "large, strong, powerful." Due to natural selection, the gampra is well adapted to local climatic conditions. It is ideally suited for the main task - guarding the owner and his home, as well as protecting the herds from wolves and bears.
Due to the fact that the grapples were not selected for phenotype, they retained many features of the exterior of the ancient species. The dimensions of the gimp range from 63 cm in females to 70 cm in males. The weight can reach 45-90 kg. The dog looks strong, strong, harmonious. The wolfhound moves easily, smoothly, which, with its considerable size and developed musculature, does not leave an impression of heaviness or awkwardness.
In accordance with the standard, the grapples look like this:
- The skull is massive with a large cranium, which is 60% of the skull. The total length of the skull is 170-173 mm. The stopper is weakly expressed, the transition from forehead to nose is smoothed out to such an extent that it represents an almost straight line. Forehead flattened and wide, 63-65 mm. The nose is large, pigmented black. Cheek arches flat, slightly pronounced.
- Jaws are strong, broad, strong with a full set of white, densely composed teeth. The bite is normal (scissor-shaped), which provides a strong grip.
- Eyes are planted deep, medium sized, almond-shaped. The color of the iris is brown. The eyelids have a black pigmented edge, which makes the dog's eyes expressive. Look attentive, intelligent and domineering. This expression of the eye is characteristic of the breed and is noted even in puppies a few weeks old.
- The ears are located slightly below the eye line, which visually makes the front of the dog even more powerful and impressive. They are of medium size and freely hang on cartilages. The tip is rounded and pointing to the muzzle. The ears can be stopped.
- Neck of medium length, conical, equipped with strong relief muscles.
- The body is somewhat stretched (108-110). The withers are clearly visible. Back strong, wide, straight. Croup is wide. The abdomen is tightened.
- The thorax is deep, wide enough, with well developed musculature. The lower margin is somewhat lower than the elbow joints.
- The limbs are strong, muscular, straight. The rear are slightly straightened in the joints, so that when looking at the dog from the side, there is a slight high-pitched appearance.
- The tail is set high, thick. In a state of tranquility it is omitted, when moving or excited, it rises above the line of the back. The dog keeps it in the form of a ring or half-ring.
The accepted breed standard describes short-haired gimmers, but there are varieties with long wool.
Wool and possible colors
Both types are characterized by "double" wool. The thick undercoat allows you to not freeze dogs even in the coldest winters in the mountains. The undercoat is so dense that it is not impregnated with thawed water and protects the body when it freezes on the top layer of the shirt.
In short-haired dogs, the length of the psovin on the body does not exceed 2.5-6 cm. The long-haired can reach 15 cm. The hair is shorter on the head and limbs.
Since the breed was formed with the maximum adaptation to the surrounding conditions, the color has a masking value. Any species is allowed, except liver and brown. It is desirable to have a dark mask on the face.
Characteristics of character
The Armenian wolfhound at all times was valued for independence in decision-making, exceptional devotion to the owner and fearlessness. During the wars and genocide of the Armenian population, the number of dogs declined sharply. Since the invaders destroyed gumpers, selflessly defending the host family and its property.
Gampre has a balanced, steady temperament. He realizes his strength and understands how much his appearance causes fear. But the dog also subtly feels love and respect. He will never bark without a reason, as if he understands that his frightening roar and barking can frighten a child.
Even settling on rest, the gampra chooses a place from which the entire protected area can be clearly seen. The well-known Armenian factory owner Gurgen Hakobyan asserts that no person will be able to choose a more favorable position, even on an unfamiliar territory, to keep it all under vigilant control.
Gurgen Hakobyan talks with his pets, as with older sons, as these proud animals arouse respect. Gurgen believes that the intellectual development of his pet Urata exceeds the mental capacity of some people. The dog never blindly does not obey orders. He chooses his tactics and strategy, which allows him to fully perform the main function - to protect and protect.
Between the owner and the dog are formed not relations "master servant", but friendly. The dog is difficult to force to attack an outsider, he must assess the degree of threat and decide to protect the owners and family.
The owner must win the recognition and friendship of the dog. Appearing in the family, the gampra initially shows its favor to the weaker members who most need its protection - children and women. From the owner the dog waits respect, recognition of equal relations. If the owner shows indifference and detachment - the dog pays him the same.
With domestic pets, gampre is in a relaxed relationship. He considers them weak and requires his protection.
Education and training
Armenian wolfhound is hard to train. Many cynologists believe that it is not necessary to train a dog, since the instinct of a guard and a guard is laid at her level of genes.
However, the dog needs to be educated from the first days of life. Gumpri late mature, and in "adolescence" they have all the disadvantages of the pubertal period of man. He can be wayward, disobedient, lazy, cunning, reckless.
In order not to get an uncontrolled adult dog of impressive size and strength, it is necessary to begin education and socialization of it as soon as possible. The master must firmly, but without aggression, make it clear who is the "leader of the pack". Dogs are trained in search skills - the search for lost people in the mountains or captured people and pets in the snow.
Gampers breeders believe that it is barbarity to train dogs to participate in dog fights. This spoils the character of the dog, develops aggressiveness towards the species and "breaks" the nature of the animal.
Care and health
Gampra is a working dog that has worked for centuries alongside a person living in harsh conditions. Therefore, the dog is unpretentious and does not need special care. However, this does not mean that you can forget about the dog.
A thick and dense undercoat requires combing out, especially often it needs to be done during seasonal molting. You need to bathe the dogs as they get dirty. If the dog does not have the ability to grind the claws naturally on a hard surface, then they must be cut, inspected, in order to avoid cracks and delamination, injuries to the pads of the paws.
If the ears are not docked, then they also need to be periodically inspected and cleaned. Require the care and cleaning of a dog's teeth. Puppies to this procedure must be taught from a very early age.
Gampra is difficult to maintain in a city apartment. Without the implementation of his "mission" the dog can get bored. It requires a lot of space and contact with a person. If the dog is kept in a city apartment, then it is necessary to walk often and for a long time, giving a metered physical load.
Diseases of the breed
Gampre is distinguished by very strong health, in which the blood of wolves played an important role and the ideal adaptability to local conditions. Dogs are not susceptible to allergic reactions, have strong immunity and good resistance to local parasites.
One of the disadvantages is the propensity to the diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Gampr grows rapidly and gaining weight, which negatively affects the condition of the bony joints. Dogs of this breed are noted:
- dysplasia of the hip joints;
- dislocations and subluxations of the elbow joints.
Strong health does not protect gampra from viral and infectious diseases inherent in carnivorous - plague, rabies. Therefore, they need vaccination against these deadly diseases.
Since the dog is most of the time on the street, it needs to be treated with fleas and ticks, periodically inspecting the coat and ears. Gampra sometimes has ear problems, but it's not the faults of the breed, but the negligence of the owner.
How to feed a pet
Armenian wolfhound is unpretentious in eating. He will eat what the owner will give him. However, it should be borne in mind that for a proper formation, taking into account the rapid growth, the dog needs a full-fledged, balanced diet with a high content of proteins and carbohydrates. Proteins should be at least 40% of the total serving volume. It can be low-fat meat, offal. Meat can be given raw.
In addition to meat, the diet should include fish, as a source of phosphorus, a necessary element for the mineralization of bones and the correct structure of the skeleton. The fish must be freed from bones and welded.
In addition to proteins, the body of the dog requires the intake of carbohydrates to ensure the processes of metabolism, regeneration and growth. They will provide porridge in which you can add a little vegetable oil, broth, boiled, stewed or raw vegetables. The frequency of feeding is the same as in other breeds of dogs - twice a day in adults and 3-4 times in puppies.
Particular attention in the preparation of the diet should be given to the prevention of joint diseases. For this, the cartilage, tendons, and bones must be introduced into the food. In addition, the diet is supplemented with vitamin-mineral supplements that provide the health of the musculoskeletal system. For prevention purposes, chondroprotectors can be given to the dog, which the veterinarian will recommend.
When choosing prepared feeds, you should choose the ones that are designed for large and giant dogs. They have already introduced all the necessary supplements to ensure the health and longevity of the animal. With proper care, feeding and regular inspection, gamprus can live 14-15 years.
Armenian wolfhound is not suitable for keeping in a city apartment. The best place for his dwelling is a country house with a large fenced area, which the dog can guard. To the dog does not freeze and does not overheat, it needs an enclosure or canopy, under which it will rest.
Shelter should not limit the review. The dog breeder told how, wanting to protect the dog from the severe frost (-30 ° C) and the piercing wind, he warmed the pavilion in which the dog slept with blankets. In the morning he saw that the blankets were torn and thrown away from the shelter, as they prevented the dog from monitoring the territory.
If the dog is a long time in the cage, then it needs to provide walks and physical activity. Gampre is happy if he can help the owner - guard the sheep, protect the house. Without the realization of natural instincts, he begins to get bored.
Photo of gampra (Armenian wolfhound)
Video about gampre (Armenian wolfhound)
Where to buy a puppy
The cost of puppies in nurseries is quite high and amounts to 200-1000 dollars. If it was difficult to buy gimpra, as the removal of dogs from Armenia was banned, and in the United States they were expensive, but now there are nurseries in Russia and Ukraine.
In Ukraine there is a kennel "Shamir", in which for a long time and successfully cultivated in the 90th years from Armenia, the gimp. When the Belarusians appealed for the purchase of puppies for protection of agricultural lands and cattle in the Cynological Union of Armenia, they were advised to purchase dogs in the Shamir kennel, as their puppies are not inferior to the Armenian ones. Puppy gimpra in the nursery costs more than 3000 hryvnia.
Kennels "Gampra-legend of Armenia" and "Urmia" in Mineral Waters maintain a close connection with the homeland of wolfhounds, therefore puppies acquired here meet the standards and are purebred.
Officially registered a new kennel of Armenian wolfhounds in Tbilisi (Georgia). "ARAX - BRUNASHEN" is the first nursery in the territory of Georgia. Its owner is a doctor by profession and editor of a magazine dealing with the propagation of native breeds. In Russia, the largest kennel of grappers is the "Armenian Lion with Urartu".
Today the motto of the Armenian cynological clubs and breeding nurseries is: "Gampr from the sea to the sea". Armenians are engaged not only in replenishment of livestock, attempts at standardization and recognition of long-haired varieties of gimpra, but also in the wide popularization of these amazing ancient dogs.