Eczema in dogs is an inflammatory process in the skin of an animal. The disease occurs frequently and is caused by various pathogenetic factors. Timely diagnosis and treatment is difficult because the skin of the animal is covered with hair, hiding the beginning of changes in the skin.
- Что такое экзема у собак 1. What is eczema in dogs?
- Причины возникновения заболевания 2. Causes of the disease
- Симптомы и проявления патологии 3. Symptoms and manifestations of pathology
- Методы диагностики заболевания 4. Methods of diagnosis of the disease
- Терапия экземы у собак 5. Therapy for eczema in dogs
What is eczema in dogs?
Eczema is a non-contagious inflammatory disease of the dog's skin that can begin acutely and become chronic with a relapsing course.
By the type of the pathological process of eczema in dogs can be wet and dry. Both types of disease differ not only in the nature of external manifestations, but also in a number of signs - localization of lesions, the form of the pathological process, and age-related demorphism.
Weeping eczema is characterized by the appearance of open wound surfaces on a dog's skin. At the initial stage, as a result of the influence of various factors, an inflammation center of the upper layer of the epidermis is formed - irritation, redness. Then bubbles appear with serous discharge. Papules, opening up, form open wounds. Subsequently, pathogenic microflora can invade them, causing secondary infection.
Dry eczema is manifested by the formation of exfoliating plates of keratinized epidermis, devoid of hair. Often this type of eczema is characteristic of the chronic course of the pathology. The acute course of the disease may be accompanied by febrile phenomena.
In chronic eczema, the skin condition changes. It thickens, becomes loose. Localized lesions in secluded places (under the ears, in the folds) or areas of increased mechanical stress (back, side, tail, neck). In older animals, the risk of disease increases. Increased skin folding and abundant undercoat also provoke eczema. Often, eczema in a chronic form is localized in the back, head, face, legs.
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The causes of the disease
Eczema is affected by various internal and external factors:
- injuries (rubbing with a muzzle, a collar, scratching in places of insect bites, consequences of exposure to extreme temperatures);
- a high degree of infestation by parasites (fleas, ticks, lice);
- lack of hygiene (dirt, dust, high humidity in the skin folds, irritant effects of saliva, tears);
- chemical exposure (not suitable detergents, kerosene, gasoline, etc.);
- parasitic and infectious diseases;
- systemic diseases;
- metabolic disorders, vitamin deficiency ;
- vegetative disorders;
- eating disorders;
- genetic predisposition due to the breed, etc.
Depending on the stage and type of eczema, the manifestations of pathology differ.
Symptoms and manifestations of pathology
It is characteristic of eczema in dogs that various stages of the process can be observed in one part of the lesion. When weeping eczema in dogs is noted:
- severe itching;
- pain sensations;
- increase in body temperature indicators;
- apathy and passivity;
- refusal of food;
- indigestion and bowel movements;
- heavy weight loss;
- nervousness, sleep disturbance.
Externally, the pathology manifests itself in local hair loss, the formation of wounds with the flow of a nodule, which glues the wool. Separate foci of inflammation merge, forming large areas. Dry eczema, as a rule, is accompanied by significant itching in the absence of pain. In the places of formation of dry areas of the epidermis the fur thins and then completely drops out.
Methods of diagnosis of the disease
Some manifestations and symptoms are generally characteristic of many dermatoses, for example, scabies, demodicosis, trichophytosis, etc. Therefore, to clarify the diagnosis, differential studies are conducted:
- a dog's blood test;
- microscopic and bacterial scrape examination;
- examination of wool for the presence of eggs, larvae and adult blood-sucking insects.
When determining the internal causes of the disease, additional examination methods may be required:
- Ultrasound .
After confirming the preliminary diagnosis and determining the cause of the pathology, an individualized treatment regimen is developed.
Eczema therapy in dogs
The treatment is carried out by conservative methods and complex. First of all, annoying factors are eliminated:
- the dog is washed with special pH neutral shampoos;
- in the presence of skin parasites carry out rehabilitation;
- exclude direct contact with the sun, heat or cold;
- eliminate the effects of chemicals and mechanical irritation.
Be sure to review the diet and diet - enter products containing essential amino acids - cysteine and methionine, as well as trace elements (zinc, cobalt, sulfur). In addition to products rich in minerals and vitamins, you can apply the appropriate vitamin-mineral complexes.
For moist eczema with abundant secretion of serous fluid, infusion administration of calcium chloride, sodium bromide or sodium hyposulphite is prescribed. Weakened anemic animals can prescribe a blood transfusion and drugs to improve immunity . To suppress desensitization processes, ascorbic acid solution is injected, retinol preparations are used to enhance regeneration and epidermis recovery processes.
To reduce the severity of pain, use painkillers, procaine blockade. If the affected area is localized on the head or neck, then novocaine shots will be placed on the side where the foci are located, in the area close to the spine from 2-3 cervical and up to 3-4 thoracic vertebra. Before the procedure, the skin is shaved, treated with an antiseptic. Injection is carried out in a staggered manner.
With severe itching and allergic reactions, the dog is prescribed Dimedrol, Suprastin, Aminazin, and others. If eczema is a subacute and chronic course, then irradiation with ultra-light X-rays can be prescribed. Locally, eczema lesions are cleaned with special sterile wipes. Crusts are soaked with chlorhexidine. Locally applied ointment - Zinc, Xeromorphic, Ichthyol or ASD-3, Resorcin.
Dermozolon, Lorinden, Fluorocort, Dermatol, Corticomycin, etc. are used for the treatment of eczema. When eczema occurs, a “addiction” to a particular drug is rapid, so the doctor must develop an alternating drug regimen.
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For moist eczema, cold applications from solutions of rivanol, lead water, alum, tannin, etc. should be used. They have a drying, tanning and antimicrobial effect on the dog's skin. Also use dressings, fabric which is impregnated with anti-inflammatory ointments - Sinalar, Lorinden, Dermozolon.
Malachitgrün or Brilliantgrün can treat the skin around the weeping hearth and the hearth itself. For dry eczema, napkins soaked in ASD + castor oil are applied to the hearth. They are pinned and changed twice a day. At the chronic stage, castor oil is replaced with fish oil.
After the inflammation process is stopped, Ichthyol ointment, Naftalan, Vishnevsky ointment, Wilkinson ointment can be applied for resorption of skin seals. In areas with thinner and delicate skin, Spermaceti cream, Lassar paste is used. Stable stagnation zones can be eliminated with paraffin applications.
It is possible after consultation with a veterinarian to apply decoctions of herbs and an ointment of medicinal plants. An ointment of celandine, succession, burdock, bee products, juice of freshly squeezed plantain leaves, etc. can be applied to areas of eczema.
Proper regular care for your pet, adequate treatment and following all the recommendations of the veterinarian will speed up the recovery of the pet, and eliminate the risk of eczema return in the future.