Eczema in dogs is an inflammatory process of the animal's skin. The disease occurs frequently and is caused by various pathogenetic factors. Timely diagnosis and treatment is complicated by the fact that the animal's skin is covered with hair, which conceals the beginning of changes in the skin.
- Что такое экзема у собак 1. What is eczema in dogs?
- Причины возникновения заболевания 2. Causes of the disease
- Симптомы и проявления патологии 3. Symptoms and manifestations of pathology
- Методы диагностики заболевания 4. Methods of diagnosing the disease
- Терапия экземы у собак 5. Eczema therapy in dogs
What is eczema in dogs
Eczema is an infectious inflammatory disease of the skin of the dog, which can begin acutely and change into a chronic form with a recurrent course.
By the type of pathological process, eczema in dogs can be wet and dry. Both types of disease differ not only in the nature of external manifestations, but also in a number of features - localization of lesions, the form of the pathological process, age-related demorphism.
Wet eczema is characterized by the appearance of open wound surfaces on the skin of the dog. At the initial stage, as a result of the influence of various factors, a focus of inflammation of the upper layer of the epidermis is formed - irritation, reddening. Then there are bubbles with a serous discharge. Papules, opening, form open wounds. Subsequently, pathogenic microflora can enter them, causing secondary infection.
Dry eczema is manifested by the formation of flaking lamina of keratinized epidermis, devoid of hair. Often this kind of eczema is characteristic for chronic pathology. The acute course of the disease can be accompanied by febrile events.
Chronic eczema changes the skin condition. It thickens, becomes loose. Localized lesions in secluded places (under the ears, in the folds) or areas of increased mechanical stress (back, sides, tail, neck). In age-old animals, the risk of the disease increases. Increased folding of the skin and abundant undercoat also provoke eczema. Often eczema in a chronic form is localized in the back, head, muzzle, paws.
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Causes of the disease
The appearance of eczema is influenced by various internal and external factors:
- trauma (rubbing with a muzzle, collar, combing in places of insect bites, consequences of exposure to extreme temperatures);
- a high degree of infection by parasites (fleas, ticks, lice);
- non-compliance with hygiene (dirt, dust, high humidity in skin folds, irritating effect of saliva, tears);
- chemical effects (not suitable detergents, kerosene, gasoline, etc.);
- parasitic and infectious diseases;
- systemic diseases;
- disturbance of metabolic processes, beriberi ;
- vegetative disorders;
- genetic predisposition due to the breed, etc.
Depending on the stage and type of eczema, the manifestations of pathology differ.
Symptoms and manifestations of pathology
For eczema in dogs, it is characteristic that in different parts of the process, different stages of the process can be observed. When wet eczema in dogs it is noted:
- severe itching;
- painful sensations;
- increase in body temperature;
- apathy and passivity;
- refusal of food;
- indigestion and defecation;
- strong weight loss;
- nervousness, sleep disturbance.
Externally, the pathology is manifested in the local loss of hair, the formation of wounds with the expiration of the syphilis, which glues the wool. Individual foci of inflammation merge, forming extensive areas. Dry appearance of eczema, as a rule, is accompanied by considerable itching in the absence of pain. In places where dry sections of the epidermis form, the wool thinens, and then completely falls out.
Methods of diagnosing the disease
Some manifestations and symptoms are characteristic in general for a variety of dermatoses, for example scabies, demodectic, trichophytosis, etc. Therefore, to refine the diagnosis, differential studies are carried out:
- a blood test of a dog;
- microscopic and bacterial scraping;
- Inspection of wool for the presence of eggs, larvae and adult blood-sucking insects.
When determining the internal causes of the disease, additional survey methods may be required:
- Ultrasound .
After confirming the preliminary diagnosis and finding out the cause of the pathology, an individual treatment regimen is developed.
Therapy for eczema in dogs
Treatment is conducted conservatively and in a complex manner. First of all, the annoying factors are eliminated:
- the dog is washed with special shampoos with a neutral pH;
- in the presence of skin parasites, sanation is carried out;
- Exclude direct contact with sun rays, high temperature or cold;
- eliminate the effects of chemicals and mechanical irritation.
Necessarily revise the diet and diet - introduce products containing essential amino acids - cysteine and methionine, as well as trace elements (zinc, cobalt, sulfur). In addition to products rich in minerals and vitamins, you can apply the appropriate vitamin-mineral complexes.
When wet eczema with an abundant discharge of serous fluid, an infusion of calcium chloride, sodium bromide or sodium hyposulphite is prescribed. Weakened anemic animals can be prescribed blood transfusion and drugs to enhance immunity . To suppress the processes of desensitization, a solution of ascorbic acid is injected, retinol preparations are used to enhance regeneration and the processes of epidermal repair.
To reduce the severity of pain, use painkillers, novocaine blockade. If the area of the lesion is located on the head or neck, then injections of novocaine lead on the side where the foci are located, in the region located next to the spine from 2-3 cervical and up to 3-4 thoracic vertebra. Before the procedure, the skin is shaved, treated with an antiseptic. Injection is carried out in a staggered manner.
With severe itching and allergic reaction, the dog is prescribed Diphenhydramine, Suprastin, Aminazine, etc. If eczema is subacute and chronic, radiation with ultralight X-rays can be prescribed. Locally, the foci of eczema are cleared with the help of special sterile wipes. Crusts soaked with chlorhexidine. Locally apply ointments - Zinc, Xeromorph, Ichthyol or ASD-3, Resorcin.
For the treatment of eczema Dermozolon, Lorinden, Fluorocort, Dermatol, Corticomycin, etc. are used. With eczema there is a rapid "getting used" to a certain medication, so the doctor should develop a scheme for alternating medicinal products.
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When wet eczema should use cold applications of solutions rivanol, lead water, alum, tannin, etc. They have drying, tanning and antimicrobial effect on the skin of the dog. Also used bandages, the fabric of which is impregnated with anti-inflammatory ointments - Sinalar, Lorinden, Dermozolone.
The skin around the soaking hearth and the hearth itself can be treated with Malachytgrun or Brilliantgrune solutions. With dry eczema, napkins impregnated with ASD + castor oil are applied to the focus. They pribintovyvayut and changed twice a day. At a chronic stage, castor oil is replaced with fish oil.
After the inflammation process is stopped for resorption of skin firmings, Ichthyol ointment, Naftalan, Vishnevsky ointment, Wilkinson ointment can be used. On sites with a more delicate and delicate skin apply Spermacet cream, Lassara paste. Zones of persistent stagnation can be eliminated with paraffin applications.
You can after consultation with the veterinarian use decoctions of herbs and ointment from medicinal plants. On sites of an eczema it is possible to impose an ointment from celandine, a string, a burdock, products of beekeeping, juice of freshly squeezed leaves of a plantain, etc.
Regular regular pet care, adequate treatment and following all recommendations of the veterinarian will speed up recovery of the pet, and eliminate the risk of eczema return in the future.