Eclampsia in a dog after childbirth is an acute condition leading to a crisis, which causes a sudden decrease to a critical level of calcium in the blood. An imbalance of the most important structural element of bone tissue that regulates muscle contraction, including the heart, which is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses and permeability of cytomembranes, normalizing blood clotting, threatens the disruption of the functioning of the main body systems.
Causes of pathology
To date, the causes that lead to a violation of the absorption of calcium in the body of a puffed up dog have not been accurately determined. Increased utilization of the mineral during pregnancy is clear - calcium goes to the formation of the bone skeleton of puppies, participates in accelerated metabolism during pregnancy, is part of the milk. Therefore, for the body of a pregnant bitch and in the period of raising puppies it requires much more. Calcium imbalance can result in:
- low activity of thyroid hormones involved in the assimilation of the microelement;
- insufficient amount of it in food, with unbalanced diet;
- anomalies associated with the breed and exterior of the bitch;
- uncompensated high need for an element ( pregnancy , lactation);
- increased excretion of calcium from the body with diarrhea or vomiting;
- increased introduction of elemental antagonists into the body (iron, zinc, cobalt, lead, magnesium);
- lack of estrogen.
It is not known whether the pathology is genetically determined, but it is noted that in dogs that have had symptoms of eclampsia after previous births, the risk of recurrence of the disease is significantly higher.
See also: avitaminosis in dogs .
Symptoms of pathology in the postpartum period
Due to a violation of the amount of calcium in the animal, the following symptoms are noted:
- involuntary muscle contraction, tremor of the limbs, which can later develop into convulsions . Due to the fact that the transport of signals along the neuromuscular endings is disturbed, the coordination of the work of the muscles fails;
- violation of heat transfer and increase in body temperature to subfebrile (40-41 ° C) values;
- violation of cardiac activity due to destabilization of calcium pump function and disturbance of conduction of nerve impulses, up to the development of heart failure, accelerated heartbeat (tachycardia) and arrhythmia;
- development of tissue hypoxia, shortness of breath, impaired function of the intercostal muscles, leading to asphyxia;
- impaired motor function due to dizziness and muscle weakness;
- decrease in visual acuity, "split objects";
- the inability to concentrate attention, manifested in the "running" look, fussiness;
- impaired muscle function throughout the body affects the visual analyzer. Due to the atony of the muscles, the pupil of the eye increases, and the dog experiences discomfort and photophobia;
- violation of the functions of the nervous system affects the mental state - the animal experiences apathy, refuses food, ignores the offspring and the host;
- sudden change of mood and behavior - apathy can be replaced by impetuous movements, unreasonable barking, bustle, caused by a sense of fear and anxiety.
If at the first symptoms of eclampsia the animal is not treated, then the progression of hypocalcemia can lead to a comatose state and the death of the pet. The most dangerous from the point of view of manifestations of hypocalcemia are three periods after birth:
- in multiple pregnancies, hypocalcemic crisis may develop several hours after delivery;
- the first few weeks of feeding - calcium leaves with milk and does not have time to recover;
- at the end of the breastfeeding period, when the imbalance increases, and the corresponding disturbances in the functions of the body systems accumulate.
Treatment of eclampsia in dogs
Before the veterinarian arrives, the animal should be given first aid:
- with cold extremities and cramps, the animal should be warmed with a heating pad;
- enter intravenously 10% solution of calcium gluconate, a warm solution is administered, calculating the dose by weight of the dog;
- if there are no skills for intravenous injection, the drug can be injected intramuscularly, dividing the volume by 4 and injecting each dose into the paws of the pet;
- in a state of moderate severity, the drug is diluted in a 1: 1 ratio with saline and injected subcutaneously into the neck area;
- at the light stage, until there is no tonic muscle cramps, the drug is poured into the bitch's mouth.
To normalize cardiac activity, a dog is given Valocordin in drops. Drug is diluted 1:10 with water and poured into the mouth. In order to normalize the function of the nervous system, put an intramuscular injection of sulfocamphocain, calculating the dose, depending on the weight of the animal. To relieve pain during muscle spasm, you can prick diphenhydramine.
After stopping the crisis, treatment is carried out to restore the level of calcium in the body. To do this, give the dog calcium tablets or a solution of calcium chloride, diluted in milk. Calcium chloride is administered intravenously at the dose prescribed by the doctor. The course of treatment is 5 days.
To maintain cardiac activity and sedation, drip valerian tincture or Corvalol on the root of the dog's tongue. Taking drugs - according to indications. Prior to the normalization of the state give three times a day, 2-30 drops of tincture.
Until the condition of the dog returns to normal, the puppies should be weaned and transferred to artificial feeding. Only a quick response and knowledge of the necessary methods of emergency care can save a dog from death. If a pathological condition is suspected, which may be manifested by shivering and fatigue of the animal even before delivery, preventive measures should be taken:
- change the dog's diet , reducing protein intake and increasing the amount of calcium-rich foods;
- after consulting with a doctor and carrying out the necessary tests, you can replenish the diet with vitamin and mineral supplements;
- if necessary, administer homeopathic preparations to normalize calcium levels;
- prevent stresses that lead to hormonal and mineral metabolism disorders;
- Prevention is supplemented with the introduction of vitamin D, for better absorption of calcium.
If a dog has had eclampsia before, then it is necessary to closely monitor the condition of the pet in the third trimester of pregnancy and during the period from childbirth to the end of puppy feeding. Identified at an early stage of the pathological condition is easier to treat. At the terminal stage, the dog may die due to heart failure, asphyxiation, or brain edema. Especially often this condition is observed in dogs of small and medium breeds. Therefore, observation of the veterinarian and control of calcium levels is necessary throughout the entire period of gestation and after delivery.