Dysplasia in dogs is a pathological change in the tissues of the joints that can be detected in any dog, however, statistics indicate that representatives of large and giant breeds often suffer from this ailment. Although the disease is not congenital in nature, experts are confident that hereditary factors play an important role in its development. How does dysplasia manifest itself, and what therapeutic methods does modern veterinary medicine offer?
- Причины развития дисплазии у собак 1. Reasons for the development of dysplasia in dogs
- Симптомы дисплазии у собак 2. Symptoms of dysplasia in dogs
- Диагностика болезни 3. Diagnosis of the disease
- Видео о дисплазии у собак 4. Video about dog dysplasia
- Лечение дисплазии у собак 5. Treatment of dysplasia in dogs
Causes of Dog Dysplasia
This disease is quite serious, as it is accompanied by damage and further destruction of the elbow and hip joint. With the progression of pathological processes, the dog cannot even walk. Among the common causes of the disease, the following can be noted:
- heredity - offspring are born to parents with dysplasia, which will also suffer from this disease, therefore individuals who do not have such an ailment are selected for breeding;
- improper, poor nutrition - dysplasia can quickly develop against a background of a deficiency or an excess of animal calcium in the body;
- excess weight is one of the reasons that accelerates pathological processes;
- insufficient (immobility) or excessive (hyperactivity) physical activity - this factor is especially dangerous for puppies of giant dogs and large breeds;
- trauma to the extremities - dislocation or fracture can lead to the appearance of the disease, but this does not happen so often, a rare type of knee dysplasia may occur.
According to the classification, several degrees of the disease are distinguished:
- I (A) - there are no disorders in the joint tissues;
- II (B) and III (C) - there are cases of dislocations;
- IV (D) - medium degree of the disease and V (E) - severe degree - pathology leads to structural changes in the joints, there is a destructive process in the tissues.
The disease can affect two types of joints, hence the types of dysplasia of the hip and elbow joints.
Be sure to read about dog arthrosis .
Symptoms of Dog Dysplasia
Often the diagnosis of "dysplasia" is made to young dogs from a year and a half. This is due to intensive growth and weight gain, which, in turn, has tremendous stress on the joints. Initially, the pet begins to limp and this can happen by the age of two. Clinical symptoms depend on the type of lesion and its degree:
- Pathology of the elbow joints . In this case, the animal begins to limp on the forelimbs, most often the lesion affects both joints. The pet feels pain when the legs are bent, does not give a paw at the command, whines, if you touch the legs. Possible formation in the area of damage to the seals. With severe pain, the puppy carefully, slowly descends the stairs or refuses to move, so it causes him severe pain. Stratification of the joint tissue may occur, then a new fragment may appear on the joint. With a significant lesion, the joints can become flat, which leads to their friction against each other. And sometimes pathology leads to the fact that the joint, losing attachment, begins to hang out.
- Hip pathology . The disease can be asymptomatic for a long time. In severe forms of the disease, puppies begin to wobble when walking, it is difficult for them to climb the stairs, or they refuse to do so. Since lameness manifests itself with significant changes in the joints, it is advisable for owners to pay attention to earlier signs of the disease. You can start to worry if the puppy often lies down with his hind legs in opposite directions. In addition, the disease leads to rapid fatigue of the animal during long walks, and there is also a rabbit run movement, that is, when the dog, while running, tries to push off with both hind limbs at the same time.
In some cases, the diagnosis of dysplasia occurs at an earlier age - at 4-5 months, when the hind limbs of the animal are not sufficiently strong. In this case, emergency therapy is required, without waiting for a year of age. Otherwise, the risks of developing another serious pathology are high - osteoarthritis.
See also: treatment of mycoplasmosis in dogs .
Diagnosis of the disease
Identification of pathological changes in a veterinary clinic is carried out using an x-ray machine. One and a half year old dogs are examined by a specialist, feel the sore limb. Special tests are also used, for example, Ortolani.
Dog Dysplasia Video
Dog Dysplasia Treatment
Unfortunately, in modern veterinary medicine there are no ways to completely rid a dog of this pathology. But timely comprehensive treatment can slow down its development and improve the quality of life of a sick animal.
If your pet has dysplasia, you will have to make every effort so that he lives longer without pain and difficulties. It is necessary to use various kinds of drugs, including those with anesthetic effect. To relieve pain, veterinarians often prescribe Quadrisol-5, eliminate the inflammatory process - Phenylbutazone, and to stop the destruction processes - Stride. The drug Rimadil helps to eliminate or reduce lameness, but its animal should be taken throughout life. Specialists often prescribe homeopathic remedies, for example, Traumeel.
Also, therapy includes taking vitamin-mineral complexes , adjusting nutrition and the regime of physical activity. However, it is worth considering that traditional therapy is not able to cure an ailment, it only eliminates the symptoms.
With complications and advanced pathological processes, veterinarians decide to use operational techniques. However, this does not happen often, since there are no guarantees of a positive result, and doctors do not reassure the owners. The type of operation is determined after a complete diagnosis, it can be the following measures:
- Crest muscle myectomy. It is not a complex surgical intervention, during which a dissection of the comb muscle located in the hip joint occurs. This reduces the pain associated with mobility and pressure on the affected joint. Such manipulation is prescribed only to young animals in order to stabilize their condition.
- Resection of the femoral head. This operation is also called resection arthroplasty. It involves the removal of the head of the hip bone, and the limb is secured thanks to a special ligament. After such an intervention, motor function is preserved only in small pets whose weight does not exceed 15 kg. Therefore, its conduct among representatives of large and giant breeds will not give the expected result.
- Triple pelvic osteotomy method. It is considered a complex operation, which not every specialist can do. When it is carried out, a bone having a cavity is dissected, then it is deployed so that it comes into closer contact with the hip joint. An additional plate is used to fix the bone. This method is used to treat only young animals.
- Intervertebral osteotomy method. The technique consists in removing the wedge-shaped part of the neck. As a result, its end fits denser into the articular notch, fixation is carried out using a plate.
- Endoprosthetics (replacement) of the joint. The operation is carried out in clinics with special equipment, tools and prostheses. The operation consists in the complete removal of the diseased joint and replacing it with a new one. This surgery gives good results and in most cases the dog begins to live fully.
A pet suffering from joint dysplasia must necessarily take medications or nutritional supplements that include chondroitin and glucosamine. They are also recommended to give puppies for the prevention of the disease, especially representatives of large breeds. Naturally, this is not a complete treatment, but only a deterrent, which allows to reduce the negative impact of pathology.
In nutrition, it is recommended to provide the pet with foods with high nutritional value and carry out strict control of body weight. It is worth considering the existing norms for the weight of puppies, according to the breed and age.
Pets who have a tendency to this ailment or the disease is already diagnosed, should limit physical activity. Long runs, active games with jumps can lead to intensive development of pathology and deterioration. But activity should not be completely ruled out, it is important to have a measure in everything.
Up to six months, intensive loads are not recommended for dogs, but the animal can swim as much as desired. With age, an increase in pet activity is required, but this should be done carefully and preferably after the recommendation of a veterinarian.
The disease requires special care for the pet, and only the owner depends on how high-quality and long the dog will live without pain and suffering.