Dermatitis in dogs is common. Animals are subject to it, regardless of the degree of care and place of residence. Dermatitis is most often observed in some breeds of dogs - shar-pei, dalmatians , bulldogs, rottweilers. The disease leads to a deterioration in the appearance of the animal, anxiety, exhaustion, severe damage to not only the epidermis, but also the dermis.
Types of dermatitis in dogs
Dermatitis is an inflammatory disease of the surface and deep layers of the skin. Depending on the causes of the disease, dermatitis is divided into:
Mechanical or traumatic dermatitis, which is considered the easiest to treat, occurs at the site of injuries, scratching, cuts. Strong tightening of the ribbons or a short haircut can lead to traumatic dermatitis, especially in poodles. Penetration of pathogenic microorganisms through the injured surface of the skin causes inflammation, swelling and redness of the skin.
The contact view appears with the constant traumatic contact of the skin of the animal with a physical or chemical irritant. It can be caused, for example, by a rubbing collar, the habit of a dog to lean against heating devices, contact with aggressive chemicals.
In dogs living in urban apartments, it can be caused by detergents, cosmetics, disinfectants, etc. These types of effects cause bubbles, swelling, redness of the skin, drying out and ulceration of the epidermis.
Medical dermatitis occurs in response to the action of drugs - iodine, ointments, antiseptics. When exposed to liniment for a long time, for example, it can lead to irritation and then to dermatosis.
The effects of drugs on dogs can be very serious. Pathology can be accompanied by allergic reactions and lead to allergic dermatitis, vesicles and papules appear, weeping sores, areas of hyperemic and edematous skin. Itching is rare, but can sometimes be quite pronounced.
Parasitic dermatitis is caused by insect parasites - fleas , ticks . A large number of fleas in the skin of the animal leads to not only the itching of the bites, but also an allergic reaction to the products of the life of the fleas.
Parasitic invasions cause scratching, which are inseminated by pathogens, edema, and tissue hyperemia. Gnawing the course to the sebaceous glands, the tick damages the follicle and the hair dies. When infected with ticks, focal hair loss is observed. Parasites carry some types of helminths, reduced immunity and damage to internal organs, especially the muscles, the intestines, cause abnormalities in the skin and, as a result, dermatitis.
Thermal dermatosis occurs in response to heat or radiation. Burns caused by high temperature (fire), X-ray, microwave or ultraviolet radiation cause inflammatory reactions and the appearance of wounds. The same effects are observed due to exposure to low temperatures - frostbite.
Allergic dermatitis causes allergenic substances - pollen, dyes, preservatives in poor-quality feed, detergents, etc. This type includes the most difficult in the treatment of atopic dermatitis in dogs, which has an autoimmune nature and is genetically determined. Allergic dermatitis is difficult to diagnose, since its symptoms are similar to a number of diseases.
Infectious type of dermatitis is caused by various pathogens - fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc. The most common type of infectious dermatitis is staphylococcal dermatitis (pyoderma). Reduced skin barrier functions in dogs provoke infection with mycobacteria, streptococci, actinomycetes. Mild forms of superficial skin damage cause itching, exudation, shallow erosion.
Paleomatitis - a reaction to prolonged exposure to purulent discharge from the wound. As a result of maceration of the skin, areas with loose hair appear on it, erosion, swelling in the upper layers and subcutaneous tissue. As a result, the skin becomes coarse, it forms folds and peeling of the epidermis.
These types of dermatitis in dogs have many variations - food dermatitis, endocrine, neurogenic, etc. Each species has its own characteristic symptoms, but there are a number of common manifestations indicating the presence of dermatosis.
See also : how many years live dogs .
Symptoms of dermatosis in dogs
Common symptoms include such manifestations as:
- local temperature increase in the lesion focus;
- hyperemia of the skin area;
- violation of the scalp (total or local baldness);
- bleeding from small vessels, resulting in a crust of clotted blood;
- soreness in the affected area;
- sweating exudate in the injured tissue and the formation of edema;
- the accession of the inflammatory process in the skin tissues;
- ulceration of the skin surface and the transition pathology in the dermis.
As a result of the progression of pathology, the dog becomes restless, the body is depleted, there is a lack of appetite, sleep disturbance. A timely and properly chosen treatment gives a positive result and has a favorable prognosis for the outcome of the disease.
To clarify the diagnosis and the appointment of an effective treatment, you should contact your veterinarian at the first symptoms of the disease. It is not necessary to self-medicate so as not to aggravate the situation with an allergic reaction to medications.
Methods for the diagnosis of dermatitis
Successful treatment and outcome depend on the correct diagnosis of the disease. Since many types of diseases in dogs have similar symptoms, only thorough, comprehensive studies can provide an objective picture of the causes of the disease. For an accurate diagnosis prescribed:
- laboratory tests of the type of infection and associated diseases;
- bacteriological seeding and microscopic examination of skin scraping;
- determination of the sensitivity of the infectious agent to antibiotics ;
- examination of blood samples for eosinophils and leukocytes;
- blood and urine tests;
After an accurate diagnosis is established, an individual scheme is developed, including a complex effect.
Treatment of dermatitis in dogs
The treatment of dermatitis depends on the type and cause of the pathology. Therefore, only an experienced veterinarian can determine the true cause of dermatitis. For treatment is prescribed:
- drug therapy;
At the beginning of treatment, the hair on the affected area is cut to facilitate access to the affected area. Using an antiseptic solution removes necrotic tissue, exudate, blood crusts. The place is powdered with antiseptic powder. Locally use dressings with medicinal ointments to accelerate tissue regeneration, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, etc. Apply paraffin, ozokerite applications. For the relief of pain, Novocainic blockade is prescribed.
Drug therapy includes:
- Course application of antibiotics for the accession of a secondary infection or infectious dermatitis. Antibiotics from groups of penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, etc. are prescribed. The treatment is carried out strictly according to the purpose with the dosage and course of administration. With the simultaneous use of systemic antibiotics and ointments, the treatment of dermatitis occurs in a short time.
- Fungal lesions require the use of fungicidal preparations, for example, Fungin, Zoomicol, etc. Apply the treatment with fungicidal shampoos — Nizoral, Clotrimazole, Ketoconazole, etc. If no pronounced effect is observed, autohemotherapy is prescribed.
- Antihistamines are used to relieve itching and allergic reactions. For the treatment of dogs, Suprastin, Tavegil, Dimedrol, Fenistil, etc. are used. For the treatment of animals, a special anti-allergenic drug Allervet is also used.
- Detoxification of the body is done by taking Furasemide.
- Immunostimulants that act to increase T-cell activity can be used to raise immunity, for example, Gamavit, Gamapren, Glycopin, Immunol Vet, etc.
- For the destruction of the parasitic component, various insecticidal-acaricidal preparations are used, for example, Prak-tik drops, Sanoflay, Spot-on, Skalibor, etc.
Physiotherapy in the treatment of dermatitis in dogs uses irradiation of the wound surface with ultraviolet lamps, such as Sollux or infrared lamps. Irradiation helps to accelerate tissue regeneration, has an antibacterial effect, helps to reduce purulent and serous secretions, activates the phagocytic functions of cells. The use of physiotherapy should be prescribed by a veterinarian, as the method has contraindications.
With timely and adequate treatment, the prognosis for dermatitis in dogs is positive in 90% of cases.