Chihuahua is considered one of the most ancient breeds and connects these dogs to the Maya and Aztec tribes. But even recently they were not even heard of ... What provoked the rabid popularity of these crumbs, and what, besides the size, do they bribe their admirers?
- Происхождение породы 1. Origin of the breed
- Описание породы чихуахуа 2. Description of the Chihuahua breed
- Характер представителей породы 3. Nature of the breed
- Дрессировка чихуахуа 4. Training Chihuahua
- Как ухаживать за маленьким питомцем? 5. How to care for a small pet?
- Особенности кормления 6. Features of feeding
- Фото чихуахуа 7. Photos of the Chihuahua
- Видео о чихуахуа 8. Video about Chihuahua
- Приобретение и стоимость породистого щенка 9. Acquisition and cost of thoroughbred puppy
- Питомники чихуахуа 10. Chihuahua nurseries
Origin of the breed
Given the antiquity of the breed, no wonder that around its origin there are many legends and conjectures. However, there is little information, according to which, in the 5th century AD, on the site of modern Mexico, already lived tiny dogs with long hair - "techichi", which may have been dumb. They lived in the Toltec tribes, but there are also theories that they came from even earlier Inca tribes. Specialists suggest that tečichi were the ancestors of modern Chihuahua.
In the period from the XIV to the XIX century there was practically no information about dogs of this breed, and they were on the verge of extinction. But in 1800 in America they decided to revive the Chihuahua, and found several purebred dogs in peasant families living next to the ruins of the last ruler of the Aztecs of Montezuma. The path of these little dogs to the popularity was very long and thorny, however, today they are spread all over the world and very popular.
Description of the Chihuahua breed
According to the accepted standard, the growth of the breed is not fixed, and more attention is paid to the weight of these dogs. The maximum weight of a chihuahua is 3 kg, the minimum weight is 500 g. Ideally, this figure should vary from 1.5 to 2.5 kg.
However, breeders still defined unspoken standards: the growth of dogs weighing less than 2 kg - 17-23 cm, from 2 to 3 kg - 25 cm. Unlike other breeds, females in chihuashes are slightly higher than males. In the latter, the "unaccustomed" growth is especially appreciated.
Ideal representatives of the breed have a square format, especially this quality is expressed in males. In females the body can be slightly longer than its height.
The head of the dogs is small and has the shape of an "apple", with ears wide in the base and tapering to the tips. By standard, the auricles should stand - semi-standing is a disadvantage, and if they hang, then the dog is disqualified. Babies have ears hanging, but gradually rise. Ideally, this occurs by the 3rd month.
There are 2 varieties of this breed:
- Smooth-haired - dogs with short smooth hair, which fits snugly to the body.
- Long-haired - in this case the coat can be straight or slightly wavy, but not curly. Dogs have a suspension in the tail area and a collar.
Which chihuahua colors exist?
According to the standard, the following colors are allowed:
- solid black;
- a combination of black and white;
- black with tan marks - tans should be clearly expressed, a similar color makes the chihuahua look like a dwarf pinscher;
- chocolate - wool has a dark brown hue; There are two possible variants of this suit - chocolate with tans and chocolate color tricolor;
- brindle - in this case alternating red hair with white, black and chocolate;
- sable - the predominant tone is a shade of light brown or beige; At this color, white spots in the chest and tips of the paws are allowed.
In addition, the chihuahuas are blue, purple or red. Other color options are also possible, but the standard allows them to exist only if the dog is elite, but not metisom.
Nature of the breed
Despite its decorative, the Chihuahuas have very developed protective qualities. Sensing the danger, this dog is not only able to lift barking throughout the house, but even to rush to an uninvited guest and bite.
If tiny terriers need regular intensive loads, then the chihuahua is enough to run around the house and go to the toilet in the tray. Such unpretentiousness makes it possible to get a chihuahua puppy for people who have health problems and elderly dog lovers. Of course, the baby will not refuse street walks and will enjoy them, it is not necessary to take them out daily.
A small, calm and well-balanced dog of this breed is an excellent companion. He can accompany the owner everywhere - in a purse, in a pocket or in his bosom. This is a great property, because if the owner does not want to leave his one-and-a-half kink, he does not have to do it.
The Chihuahu suffers, the so-called "mole syndrome", that is, they like to burrow into the fabric - a blanket, blanket or blanket, creating from it a kind of nest. Experts attribute this habit to the fact that these dogs are merzlyaki, and in this way they get warm.
Representatives of this breed are very fond of children, however, it is not recommended to bring such a pet into a family with toddlers. And it's not in the nature of the dog, but in its small size. Even a crumb who can not walk yet, is capable of causing a Chihuasca injury by imprudence.
These dogs are excellent at the role of a single pet, but they also get along well with other pets. Possible problems can arise in the process of street walks, since chihuahua are naturally very cocky and brave, they can get involved in a fight with dogs that exceed them in size - and that's practically all dogs.
Such situations are deadly to these pets. To avoid incidents, it is recommended to use a harness with a leash or roulette for walking, which will give the dog a certain freedom, but the owner will control his actions and will always be able to intervene. Chihuahua - fragile, bold, funny pets, become true members of the family, faithful and affectionate.
Many people think that since the dog is small, it does not need to be educated and trained. But this is a delusion. If you do not pay this aspect of attention, the pet will be self-willed and allow himself what is usually not allowed to dogs. Usually the first skill from which the owners of these house dogs begin to learn, is the accustoming to the tray. It's easy to learn the dogs.
It is important to accustom the puppy to respond to the nickname, and for this the owner must pronounce it clearly, confidently and calmly. At the beginning of training, a doggie can be encouraged, even if he looks at the owner after hearing his name. If the first attempt did not bring success, it should be repeated after a while. Do not often and repeatedly call the dog, otherwise it will not understand that this set of rapidly repeating sounds is nothing but her nickname and will not be able to remember it.
Typically, the Chihuahu very quickly learn the skill of response. But other teams can cause considerable difficulties. First of all, the owner of a small dog should understand the essence of her training. It consists in the fact that the dog must remember the correct algorithm for executing the command and take into account the wishes of the owner.
Naturally, the method of "whip", which is often used by people when training their four-legged pets, in this case, is strictly prohibited! In general, to apply physical strength to dogs today is considered a minimum of savagery. Therefore, one option remains - the method of encouragement.
It is recommended to start training from the basics - the dog should learn the commands "Place!", "Lie!", "Sit!" And since all dogs react, first of all, to intonation, you should choose the most suitable. It should be the same for all trainings, commands should be pronounced clearly, rather loudly (do not scream), and you do not need to swallow sounds.
Do not think that the owner should be the leader only for a large pet. And in the case of such a tiny dog this rule works. If he does not see the leader in the host, he can simply refuse to carry out assignments. And with discipline in this case it will be much more difficult. Dressour chihuahua - a long-playing event, the owner will have to give the pet a set of the same commands day after day, because it will be performed only when associations with words begin to arise in your head.
More details about the training of dogs .
How to care for a small pet?
By purchasing such a kid, the owners should be prepared for various aspects of its content:
- Walking . As already noted, the Chihuahu are different from the other dogs, since they do not require an everyday 2-time walking. To facilitate the cleaning of the toilet, many owners use a tray and disposable diapers, which are regularly replaced. But it should be borne in mind that representatives of this breed do not tolerate separation very well, so owners often take their own crumbs with them.
- Washing and drying chihuahua. This aspect requires special attention, since the wool of the doggies gets dirty very quickly. To bathe a baby is required often - once a week and a half. After the day he needs to wash his paws, and at any time of the year. Dry doggies of this breed in a special way - they are wrapped in a towel with a dense terry nap and kept on hands until the fabric absorbs water. After applying special means-conditioners, it is most convenient in the form of a spray. In addition, you can dry your pet with a hair dryer, this will avoid getting cold. After the wool is completely dry, you need to comb it, using a special brush, suitable for the type of wool.
- Care for claws, teeth and ears of the pet. Cutting the claws is mandatory, and it should be done at least twice a month. It is important during the procedure to ensure that the blade does not go to the pink base, and only the keratinized tip is cut off. To owners on a note - claws on back extremities grow not so quickly, as on forward. Ears clean this dog every time after a bath day. You can do this using a cotton swab dipped in boiled water or a special solution. The woolen cloth that can grow in the auricles must be removed, as they are fertile ground for the reproduction of ear mites. These dogs need professional dental care, so the owner will have to take the pet once a month for routine examination and cleaning of tooth enamel from plaque and dental calculus.
Features of feeding
The size of a daily portion of food for an adult chihuahua is calculated as follows - 50-80 grams per 1 kg of body weight. The portion increases if the dog is hyperactive, and also during the growth period - up to 8 months.
On average, a 2 kg dog receives 150 grams of food. Of this, 2/3 of the portions should consist of protein products, the rest - vegetable food. The exception is the lactation period, in this case the ration is increased by 1/3, and the additive should consist of products that are sources of calcium.
The adult chihuahuas are fed twice - in the morning and in the evening, it is advisable to comply with the regime. Also, snack in the form of seeds from veins or dog biscuits, which can be purchased at a pet store. When feeding natural food is recommended to give meat, fish and eggs in a boiled form. This will protect the dogs from parasite infestation. By-products can be included in the diet, also pre-cooked, but not more often 2-3 times a month.
But sea fish can often be present in the Chihuahu menu, except for pollock. This fish contains substances that impede the absorption of iron and provokes the development of urolithiasis in dogs of this breed. The fish are given a thorough cleansing from the bones. Turkey, chicken, rabbit is allowed to give, but also pitted. The source of carbohydrates are cereals - rice, buckwheat, and calcium - fermented milk products - cottage cheese, yoghurt, kefir.
In addition to feeding natural food, owners can choose another option - canned food or dry food. The wet food is balanced and great for chihuahua. But you need to buy a high-quality product, suitable for small breeds, and its price is quite high. Dry food is soaked in water or mixed with soft food. If the food is intended for the prevention of tartar, then it should not be softened, since then it will not give the desired effect. At any type of feeding it is important to provide the pet with clean drinking water.
Read more about feeding chihuahua .
Video about chihuahua
Acquisition and cost of thoroughbred puppy
Given the growing popularity of dwarf breeds and the quality of representatives of this breed, it is easy to imagine that it is not the cheapest. Private breeders and small nurseries can purchase a puppy with a pedigree for 10,000-25,000 rubles, depending on the class. Known nurseries sell high-quality offspring much more expensive, here the price varies from 30,000 to 60,000 rubles.
Chihuahua is a dog for the soul, requiring warm, friendly treatment. And then the kid will become not just a pet, but a friend and family member.