Kidney diseases in dogs are found in all breeds. This problem is urgent for veterinary medicine, as evidenced by the frequency of petition for help from owners of small domestic animals. But the statistical and clinical material on renal pathology in dogs is much less common than scientific work on the incidence in cats.
- Наиболее распространенные болезни почек 1. The most common kidney disease
- Классификация почечных патологий 2. Classification of renal pathologies
- Общие симптомы почечной недостаточности 3. General symptoms of renal failure
- Методы диагностики патологии 4. Methods of pathology diagnosis
- Методы терапии почечной патологии 5. Methods of therapy of renal pathology
- Профилактика патологии почек 6. Prophylaxis of renal pathology
The most common kidney diseases
The following types of kidney diseases are most common in dogs:
- interstitial nephritis;
- ischemic kidney disease (infarction).
The frequency of treatment of dog owners with chronic and acute renal failure is 10% of all cases. Moreover, the disease is severe, long, disrupting the activities of many systems, and often lead to the death of a pet.
Most often, kidney diseases occur in dogs over the age of 4 (80%), but there are pathologies in puppies for up to a year. This is most likely due to violations of intrauterine development or abnormalities of kidney formation.
Seasonality in calls is noted - peak falls on autumn months, which is conditioned by climatic conditions. Raw, cold, windy weather leads to hypothermia and inflammation of the kidneys.
Classification of renal pathologies
All kidney diseases in dogs are classified according to several signs:
- By the nature of the manifestation of the pathological process:
- Depending on the lesion of the organ structures:
- interstitial tissue;
- glomerular apparatus;
- renal tubules;
- By the duration of the disease:
- According to the etiologic factor:
- By the nature of distribution:
- By the severity of the process:
- light degree;
- By origin:
Kidney disease in dogs can occur as an independent (primary) pathology, and as a result of complications of major diseases (secondary). Secondary renal failure occurs against the background of impaired functions of the immune system (autoimmune diseases), vascular pathologies, which occur as a thrombosis, thromboembolism, arterial hypertension.
Common symptoms of kidney failure
Kidney diseases in dogs are accompanied by common symptoms, but there are also manifestations, characteristic only for a certain type of pathology. External manifestations of renal failure include the following symptoms:
- lethargy and fatigue of the animal;
- decreased appetite;
- loss of body weight;
- pallor of mucous membranes;
- dry skin;
- pain in palpation in the lumbar region and with urination;
- decreased visual acuity;
- impaired conduct and coordination of movements;
- increased urge to urinate with a decrease in the volume of excreted urine (oliguria), until the complete cessation of urination (anuria);
- fluid retention in the body leads to edema formation;
- there are signs of heart failure (especially with glomerulonephritis);
- inflammatory processes are accompanied by an increase in body temperature;
- poisoning products of disintegration leads to vomiting, stool disorder, convulsions.
Laboratory tests of urine record the change in its composition, volume, color:
- urine becomes dark, turbid;
- the density of urine is reduced;
- in the urine is noted the presence of: protein, blood, cells of the desquamated epithelium, protein cylinders, high content of leukocytes indicates the bacterial nature of the disease.
Clinical studies of blood indicate the following changes:
- increased urea and creatine content, which indicates acidosis;
- high content of minerals - potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and a decrease in calcium and sodium;
- moderate decrease in the number of red blood cells (anemia);
- increase in the number of neutrophilic leukocytes;
- an increase in ESR.
Progression of pathology leads to increased intoxication with decomposition products, disruption of water-salt homeostasis and body pH, a decrease in metabolic processes, an increase in the breakdown of proteins, and the disruption of plastic processes. Absence of treatment leads to an increase in pathological changes and death of the dog.
Methods of pathology diagnosis
To identify the causes of the disease and assess the severity of the process in veterinary clinics, differential diagnosis is carried out. It is carried out using the following methods:
- delivery of clinical, biochemical, hematological studies of blood and urine;
- Ultrasound of the functions and condition of the kidneys and organs of the abdominal cavity;
- CT or MRI in case of suspected heart attack of the kidney.
Based on the results of laboratory, physical, instrumental studies and analysis of collected information, the veterinarian makes a diagnosis and develops an individual treatment regimen. It is established that the most frequent cause of kidney pathology in dogs is a violation of the content, errors in the diet of pets. Thus, the main fault lies with the owners of the animals.
Methods of therapy of renal pathology
Treatment is carried out with the use of such therapy methods as:
- drug therapy;
Drug therapy depends on the cause of the pathology and symptomatic manifestations:
|Impact target||Group of medicines||Name of the medicine|
|Bacterial and viral infections||Antibiotics||Biseptol, Nitroxoline, Amoxicillin, Cyphran, Baytril|
|Suppression of immunological reactions, improvement of urinary excretion, elimination of edema||Glucocorticoids||Prednisolone, Dexamethasone, Metidine|
|Strengthening diuresis, elimination of edema||Diuretics||Furosemide, Veroshpiron|
|Normalization of the content of potassium in the body||Preparations of potassium||Panangin, Aspartk|
|Elimination of putrefactive processes in the digestive tract, normalization of defecation, stabilization of urea formation||Probiotics||Lactusan, Lactulose (enema), Vetom|
|Recovery of water-salt balance||Droppers with saline solutions||Ringer's|
|Elimination of pain||Spasmolytics||But-spa, Papaverin|
|Maintaining cardiac function, normalizing blood pressure||Antihypertensive drugs, cardioprotectors||Enap, Carboxylase, Preductal, Riboxin, Neoton|
If necessary and severe degree of intoxication dialysis is prescribed:
- peritoneal dialysis.
Great value in the treatment of renal pathologies and prevention of progression, recurrence of diseases has diet therapy. With the help of an adequately developed diet, you can:
- weaken the symptoms of pathology in the form of dyspepsia;
- a decrease in the amount of protein in the diet helps to cope with acidosis;
- an increase in the content of fiber in the feed provides an alternative way to eliminate toxins and metabolic products - with feces;
- Ensure the intake of minerals and vitamins to restore metabolism;
- recovery of body weight with products containing non-protein calories, vitamins, essential fatty acids.
In extreme cases, surgery may be required, for example, to remove calculi from the kidneys. The problem is that not all vet clinics can provide operative treatment of renal pathology. To avoid serious pathologies of the kidneys, prolonged and expensive treatment, it is necessary to apply methods of prevention.
Prophylaxis of renal pathology
There is a breed predisposition to kidney pathologies in dogs. For example, in dalmatians, dachshunds, bulldogs, terriers, urolithiasis is more common than in other breeds. Therefore, the owner should know the characteristics of the breed of his pet and conduct prevention of kidney pathologies:
- Regularly visit a vet clinic to monitor the condition and function of the kidneys.
- Observe the drinking regimen, especially when feeding on dry food and high motor activity of the dog, and also in a hot period of time.
- With age, a vet clinic visit should be regular - at least once every 6 months.
As experience of veterinarians and statistical data shows, it is on the responsible behavior of the owner that the health and well-being of his pet depends. This is also true for kidney pathologies in dogs.