Dog kidney disease occurs in all breeds. This problem is urgent for veterinary medicine, as evidenced by the frequency of requests for help from small pet owners. But statistical and clinical material on renal pathology in dogs is much less common than scientific work on the incidence in cats.
- Наиболее распространенные болезни почек 1. The most common kidney disease
- Классификация почечных патологий 2. Classification of renal pathologies
- Общие симптомы почечной недостаточности 3. General symptoms of renal failure
- Методы диагностики патологии 4. Methods for the diagnosis of pathology
- Методы терапии почечной патологии 5. Therapies for renal pathology
- Профилактика патологии почек 6. Prevention of kidney disease
The most common kidney disease
In dogs, the following types of kidney diseases are most common:
- interstitial nephritis;
- ischemic kidney disease (heart attack).
The treatment frequency of dog owners with chronic and acute kidney failure is 10% of all cases. Moreover, the disease is severe, prolonged, disrupting the activity of many systems, and often lead to the death of a pet.
Most often, kidney diseases are found in dogs over the age of 4 years (80%), but pathologies are also observed in puppies up to a year old. This is most likely due to impaired intrauterine development or abnormalities in the formation of the kidneys.
Seasonality in circulation is noted - the peak falls in the autumn months, due to climatic conditions. Damp, cold, windy weather leads to hypothermia and inflammation of the kidneys.
Classification of renal pathologies
All kidney diseases in dogs are classified according to several criteria:
- By the nature of the manifestation of the pathological process:
- Depending on the lesion of the organ structures:
- interstitial tissue;
- glomerular apparatus;
- tubules of the kidneys;
- By the duration of the course of the disease:
- By etiological factor:
- By nature of distribution:
- According to the severity of the process:
- mild degree;
- By origin:
Kidney diseases in dogs can occur as an independent (primary) pathology, or as a result of complications of the underlying diseases (secondary). Secondary renal failure occurs against a background of impaired immune system functions (autoimmune diseases), vascular pathologies that occur as thrombosis, thromboembolism, and arterial hypertension.
Common symptoms of kidney failure
Kidney diseases in dogs are accompanied by common symptoms, but there are manifestations that are characteristic only for a certain type of pathology. The following symptoms are related to external manifestations of renal failure:
- lethargy and fatigue of the animal;
- decreased appetite;
- weight loss;
- pallor of the mucous membranes;
- dry skin;
- pain during palpation in the lumbar region and during urination;
- drop in visual acuity;
- violation of behavior and coordination of movements;
- increased urge to urinate with a decrease in the amount of urine excreted (oliguria), up to a complete cessation of urination (anuria);
- fluid retention in the body leads to the formation of edema;
- there are signs of heart failure (especially with glomerulonephritis);
- inflammatory processes are accompanied by fever;
- poisoning by decay products leads to vomiting, upset stools, convulsions.
Laboratory studies of urine record a change in its composition, volume, color:
- urine becomes dark, cloudy;
- urine density is reduced;
- in the urine, the presence of: protein, blood, cells of desquamated epithelium, protein cylinders, the high content of leukocytes indicates the bacterial nature of the disease.
Clinical blood tests note the following changes:
- high levels of urea and creatine, which indicates acidosis;
- high content of minerals - potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and a decrease in calcium and sodium;
- a moderate decrease in the number of red blood cells (anemia);
- increase in the number of neutrophilic white blood cells;
- increase in ESR.
The progression of pathology leads to increased intoxication with decay products, disruption of water-salt homeostasis and body pH, a decrease in metabolic processes, an increase in protein breakdown and a violation of plastic processes. The lack of treatment leads to an increase in pathological changes and death of the dog.
Methods for the diagnosis of pathology
To identify the causes of the disease and assess the severity of the process in veterinary clinics, differential diagnosis is performed. It is carried out using the following methods:
- delivery of clinical, biochemical, hematological studies of blood and urine;
- Ultrasound of the functions and condition of the kidneys and organs of the abdominal cavity;
- CT or MRI in case of suspected renal infarction.
Based on the results of laboratory, physical, instrumental studies and analysis of the information collected, the veterinarian makes a diagnosis and develops an individual treatment regimen. It has been established that the most common cause of kidney pathology in dogs is a violation of the content, errors in the diet of pets. Thus, the main fault lies with the owners of the animals.
Renal pathology treatment methods
Treatment is carried out using such methods of therapy as:
- drug therapy;
Drug therapy depends on the cause of the pathology and symptomatic manifestations:
|Purpose of exposure||Drug group||Drug name|
|Bacterial and viral infections||Antibiotics||Biseptolum, Nitroksolin, Amoxicillin, Tsifran, Baytril|
|Suppression of immunological reactions, improvement of urine excretion, elimination of edema||Glucocorticoids||Prednisolone, Dexamethasone, Metipred|
|Strengthening diuresis, eliminating edema||Diuretics||Furosemide, Veroshpiron|
|Normalization of potassium in the body||Potassium preparations||Panangin, Asparkam|
|Elimination of putrefactive processes in the gastrointestinal tract, normalization of bowel movements, stabilization of urea formation||Probiotics||Lactusan, Lactulose (Enema), Vetom|
|Recovery of water-salt balance||Droppers with saline solutions||Ringer Ringer|
|Pain relief||Antispasmodics||No-shpa, papaverine|
|Maintaining heart function, normalizing pressure||Antihypertensive drugs, cardioprotectors||Enap, Carboxylase, Preductal, Riboxin, Neoton|
If necessary and severe intoxication, dialysis is prescribed:
- peritoneal dialysis.
Diet therapy is of great importance in the treatment of renal pathologies and in the prevention of progression and relapse of diseases. Using an adequately designed diet, it is possible to:
- weaken the symptoms of pathology in the form of dyspeptic disorders;
- reducing the amount of protein in the diet helps to cope with acidosis;
- an increase in fiber content in the feed provides an alternative way to eliminate toxins and metabolic products - with feces;
- ensure the supply of minerals and vitamins to restore metabolism;
- restoration of body weight with the help of products containing non-protein calories, vitamins, essential fatty acids.
In extreme cases, surgery may be required, for example, to remove calculi from the kidneys. The problem is that not all veterinarians can provide surgical treatment for renal pathology. To avoid serious kidney pathologies, prolonged and costly treatment, prophylactic methods must be applied.
There is a pedigree predisposition to kidney pathologies in dogs. For example, in Dalmatians, dachshunds, bulldogs, terriers more often than in other breeds, urolithiasis is detected. Therefore, the owner must know the characteristics of the breed of his pet and carry out the prevention of renal pathologies:
- Visit the vet clinic regularly to monitor the condition and function of the kidneys.
- Observe drinking regimen, especially when eating dry food and high motor activity of the dog, as well as during the hot period of time.
- With age, visits to the veterinary clinic should be regular - at least 1 time in 6 months.
As the experience of veterinarians and statistical data shows, the health and well-being of his pet depends on the responsible behavior of the owner. This is also true for renal pathologies in dogs.