Liver disease in dogs

Liver diseases in dogs are one of the frequently established diagnoses in veterinary practice. Of all cases of treatment, they constitute more than 5%. And these are only diagnosed pathologies. Often the owners are unaware that the cause of the disease is liver disease in dogs. Despite the fact that it is one of the few organs that can regenerate, liver physiology causes a high frequency of pathogenic effects on its structure and function.


Types and classification of liver pathologies

The liver plays an important role in life support. It is the main “filter” of toxic substances of endogenous and exogenous origin. Therefore, it falls under the “shock” of intoxication of the organism of various etiologies, and is a target for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and blood supply system. Sad eyes in a dog

Liver disease can be divided into:

  1. Primary - caused by direct mechanical or toxic effects on the body.
  2. Secondary - due to systemic diseases of other organs.

The primary hepatopathology is infectious hepatitis, which is caused by various strains of adenoviruses belonging to the genus Mastadenovirus. In dogs, liver disease is caused by two strains:

  • type 1 (CAV-1);
  • type 2 (CAV-2).

They have varying degrees of their ability to infect, but are similar in their antigenic structure and immunogenic properties. The disease affects dogs of all breeds and ages, but is most often diagnosed in 2-6-month-old puppies.

The source of infection is domestic dogs and wild carnivorous canine virus carriers or sick animals. The infectious pathogen is excreted with bodily fluids - mucus, which is separated from the eyes, nose, urine, and feces. black dog lies

Infection occurs by contact - direct and indirect, or by eating infected meat, water. Also the cause of hepatitis are:

  • pathogenic fungi;
  • parasites;
  • Leptospira bacteria;
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycobacterium complex (Koch's bacillus), etc.

Some of them are parasitic in the tissues and structures of the liver, others are localized in various organs, but in the process of vital activity they release toxins that destroy the liver.

Secondary hepatopathy is caused by various factors:

  • pathologies of the digestive tract (pancreatitis, gastroenterocolitis);
  • heart failure and blood vessel disease;
  • endocrine pathology (Cushing's disease);
  • drug treatment (hormone therapy);
  • abdominal trauma;
  • exposure to toxic substances;
  • oxygen starvation, etc.

The classification of hepatic pathologies takes into account the localization of the lesion. Distinguish pathology: pug

  • the hepatobiliary system, which includes not only the liver, but also the gallbladder and ducts (cholangitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis);
  • parenchyma (internal tissue) of the liver (acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, fibrosis, amyloidosis, lipidosis (obesity)).

The duration of the pathology is divided into:

  • sharp;
  • subacute;
  • chronic.

In addition, liver diseases in dogs are classified into the following:

  • inflammatory;
  • non-inflammatory;
  • neoplasias (malignant and benign tumors, gummas, cysts, abscess);
  • vascular anomalies (pylephlebitis, portal vein thrombosis, cardiac cirrhosis of the liver, congestive liver).

Some liver pathologies are genetically determined and are characteristic of a certain breed of dog. For example, anomalies of the liver vessels are most often found in representatives of such breeds as dwarf spitz, Jack Russell terriers, and Yorkshire terriers in dwarf breeds.

Signs of liver disease

Symptoms of violation of the structure of the liver are diverse, since the functions performed by this organ are diverse. Each pathology has characteristic symptoms and is common to all types of liver damage. If more than 70% of the tissues of the organ are affected, then such symptoms of disorders begin to appear: pretty dog

  • vomiting;
  • diarrhea;
  • loss of appetite and body weight (anorexia);
  • lethargy and apathy;
  • intense thirst;
  • discoloration of feces (light, plasticine) and urine (saturated orange or brick);
  • increased urine (polyuria);
  • The yellowness of the whites of the eyes, tongue and skin;
  • violation of coagulation (coagulability) of blood;
  • swelling and ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity);
  • hypoglycemia;
  • hepatoencephalopathy;
  • incoordination of movements and behavior;
  • eye diseases and blindness;
  • convulsions;
  • dyspnea;
  • pallor of visible mucous membranes, anemia. beautiful dog

Frequent signs of liver disease are pain, due to which the dog whines, takes a forced posture, reacts negatively when feeling the area of ​​the liver.

Inflammatory pathologies are accompanied by fever and febrile manifestations. If the liver is damaged by pathogenic fungi, the symptoms of the disease also appear in the form of dermatoses - the dog begins to lose hair, bald spots are formed, changes in the skin structure are visible. Some types of disorders are accompanied by the formation of bruises on the skin of the dog, an increase in lymph nodes.

In the initial stage of liver disease are asymptomatic or manifestations of the pathology are attributed to other causes. Therefore, it is very important to consult a doctor in time to prevent the development of such serious complications as cirrhosis of the liver and ascites that are not treated and lead, sooner or later, to the death of the pet.

Methods of diagnosis of liver disease

The causes of some liver diseases in dogs are still unclear, and the symptoms manifest in the later stages, with significant organ damage or disguised as other diseases. Therefore, it is very important to choose such diagnostic methods that will help identify the disease at an early stage and start treatment in time. beautiful eyes at the dog

In veterinary practice, time-tested methods and modern hardware and instrumental studies are used to clarify the diagnosis of liver diseases:

  • visual inspection;
  • feeling and knocking the liver area;
  • ultrasound (ultrasound);
  • radiography;
  • endoscopic examination;
  • diagnostic laparotomy;
  • angiography (blood vessel research);
  • liver tissue biopsy;
  • biochemical and clinical analysis of blood and urine;
  • serological tests;
  • coprogram (fecal examinations);
  • cytological analysis of fluid for ascites.

These diagnostic methods allow you to visually see the changes, determine the cause of the pathology, establish an accurate diagnosis and exclude other diseases with similar symptoms. In addition, many methods allow you to track how effective the applied treatment is and correct it in time. Based on the results obtained, the veterinarian develops a treatment regimen.

Methods of treating liver pathology

The main goal of the treatment of liver pathologies in dogs is: the dog is lying on the crib

  1. Elimination of the pathogenic agent (viruses, bacteria, worms, fungi).
  2. Reduction of exposure and cessation of toxic substances.
  3. Relief of symptoms (symptomatic therapy).
  4. Treatment of concomitant pathologies.

The treatment is aimed primarily at eliminating the causes and maintaining the dog’s body for the period necessary for the repair of liver tissue. According to studies, if you eliminate the causes of the disease, the liver is restored within 10-15 days. To restore the function of the liver is used:

  • drug therapy;
  • physiotherapy;
  • diet therapy;
  • surgical treatment, for example, congenital anomalies of the liver or neoplasia.

The approximate scheme of drug treatment is presented in the table:

Types of liver pathology Group of drugs Target impact Drug name
Acute liver failure;

Infectious hepatitis;

Hepatic encephalopathy;

Septicemia on the background of liver failure;

Prevention after surgery

Antibiotics Infectious agent (viruses, bacteria) Tsiprovet, Gentamicin, Sinuloks, Clavulanate,

Clavil, metronidazole;







Acute liver failure;

Infectious hepatitis;

Hepatic encephalopathy;

Septicemia on the background of liver failure

Salt and nutrient solutions Restoration of water-salt balance and energy homeostasis, partial elimination of intoxication Magnesium sulphate (25% solution);

Glucose (40% rr);

Isotonic solution of NaCl;


Ringer's solution;

Lactasol, Fresenius

Hepatitis of various etiologies;

Cirrhosis of the liver;

Liver cancer (stage 1-2)

Enterosorbents Detoxification of the body Tsamax; Silma Enterosgel;



Activated carbon

Acute liver failure;

Hepatitis of various etiologies; Hepatic encephalopathy;

Cirrhosis of the liver;

Liver cancer

Antispasmodics and analgesics Relief of pain syndrome Analgin; Baralgin;

No-shpa; Naproxen;

Ibuprofen; Ketanol;


Spazgan; Revalgin

Acute liver failure;

Hepatitis of various etiologies; Hepatic encephalopathy;

Cirrhosis of the liver;

Liver cancer

Hepatoprotectors Protecting liver tissue and accelerating its regeneration Api-san Hepatodject;

Hepatonic; VetExpert Hepatiale Forte;

Hepatovat for dogs;

Divoprayd, Kovertal; Thioprotectin;

For the rapid recovery of the animal using vitamin therapy using the following veterinary preparations:

  • Canvit Multi for dogs;
  • Aminoxol;
  • Canvit Fish Oil;
  • Petvital Derm Caps et al.

Scientists have obtained good results in treating liver pathologies in dogs, using the complex - preparations of cluster silver with bile of cattle and reflexotherapy (dynamic electroneurostimulation). dog on the floor

Often, the therapy of liver diseases in dogs is a long and expensive process, therefore, in order to avoid the disease, it is necessary to regularly show the animal to a veterinarian, especially when the breed is susceptible to hepatosis, to make all the necessary vaccinations, to monitor the animal's nutrition. The health of a dog depends largely on the responsible attitude of the owner of the animal.

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