Antibiotics are medications that harm the body, but also save lives. They are prescribed when the body cannot independently overcome the infection. And, of course, we are talking not only about people, but also our smaller brothers. Dogs also get sick and can not always cope with the disease without medications. What antibiotics are needed for dogs, and in what cases can not do without them?
- Когда и как применять антибиотики 1. When and how to use antibiotics
- Какие антибиотики применяются для лечения собак 2. What antibiotics are used to treat dogs
- В каких случаях применяют те или иные антибиотики 3. In which cases are these or those antibiotics used?
When and how to use antibiotics
First of all, dog owners need to understand that it is very dangerous to use antibiotics without the recommendation of a veterinarian, because you need to know what caused the infection and choose a drug from the appropriate group. Properly calculated dosing and duration of treatment are no less important for the recovery of a pet.
What should a host without a medical education know about antibiotics for dogs? Only general information about such tools and their use. It is necessary to take into account all the subtleties of using drugs for this purpose:
- If the animal has a disease of viral origin, then antibiotics are used only in case of complications or their threat.
- The dosage is calculated based on the weight of the pet, and in no case can you change it yourself, otherwise you can cause harm to your health. Incorrect dosage can lead to intoxication of the pet, or the remedy may not work against infection.
- Even if the dog is much better, stopping the course of antibiotics is not recommended. How many days is prescribed to drink the medicine, so much should be taken.
- With an independent selection of funds, you can make a mistake, because there are many antibiotics that act on various pathogens of infection. An improperly selected drug will not help the pet and will take precious time, which can lead to significant complications.
- An overdose of the drug, in most cases, manifests itself in the form of vomiting and diarrhea, but sometimes more serious side effects are possible, for example, the pet may go deaf.
In the modern world, they no longer pay attention to the fact that antibiotics should be prescribed only in extreme cases. Many owners at the slightest manifestations of the disease, without special reasons, use them. This is facilitated by the fact that everyone can purchase antibiotics, both for humans and animals.
This attitude to medicines leads to the resistance of pathogens to antibacterial agents. This phenomenon occurs if you reduce the dose of the drug or stop taking the medicine before the end of the course. That is why it is necessary to strictly adhere to the recommendations of the attending physician, which applies not only to animals, but also to people.
What antibiotics are used to treat dogs
Very often, owners are interested in whether dogs can be given antibiotics intended for humans. But in fact, there are no special canine antibiotics. What is sold in veterinary pharmacies is the same means, but having a lower dosage.
In dog therapy, the following groups of antibiotic drugs can be used:
- Antibiotics related to the penicillin series, including those having a semi-synthetic origin - Ampicillin, Flemoxin Solutab, Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav, etc.
- Cephalosporins - there are four generations of drugs and, the more modern the generation, the more effective the drug against gram-negative flora. Especially resistant to antibiotics are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.
- Macrolides - Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, Macropen, Azithromycin, Spiramycin, etc. In most cases, they are used for respiratory diseases and pneumonia.
- Carbapenems - Meropenem, Meronem, Doripenem, Imipinem, etc. They are highly effective against staphylococci .
- Tetracyclines are natural: Tetracycline, Terramycin, Biomycin, and semi-synthetic: Metacyclin, Doxycycline, Clinomycin. They are used for tick-borne borreliosis and cystitis in dogs.
- Aminoglycosides - Tobramycin, Gentamicin, Kanamycin, Amikacin. Effective against gram-negative pathogens, are highly toxic, therefore, they are used exclusively according to indications.
- Chloramphenicol - used for intestinal disorders.
- Fluoroquinolones - Ofloxacin, Pefloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Levoflox, Levofloxacin. They are used to treat cystitis, gastrointestinal infections, and severe pneumonia.
- Fungicidal antibiotics - Nystatin, Levorin, Amphoterecin B, are used only against the elimination of pathogenic fungi.
Among antibiotics there is another group of drugs - anti-TB drugs (Streptomycin, Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ftivazid). This group is intended to treat people, but it is extremely dangerous for animals. After taking them, the dog may not survive.
The antibiotics used for pets have a different effect on infectious agents - bacteriostatic, in which they slow down and stop the growth of bacteria, or bactericidal, which kills them.
In severe infectious diseases, especially caused by gram-negative pathogens, it is recommended to begin antibiotic therapy with drugs that have a bacteriostatic effect. This will help to avoid the infectious-toxic shock, which is caused by the large influx of toxic substances into the blood released by dead bacteria.
The causative agents of infections quickly enough develop resistance to such drugs, so you should not abuse them.
If it is not possible to immediately identify the cause of the infection, then antibiotic drugs are prescribed, which have a fairly wide range of uses, since they are effective against various pathogenic microorganisms.
There are also general antibiotics, they can penetrate the tissues of various organs and systems, or drugs that act only in the intestine.
In which cases are certain antibiotics used?
There are many dog ailments that require the use of antibiotics and it is worth considering in more detail when and what is used to cure pets.
Most often, semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotics and cephalosporins are prescribed. Means of the remaining groups are used in therapy much less often, usually with a low effectiveness of the former.
- With purulent wounds or skin diseases, ointments with an antibacterial effect are prescribed. If we are talking about a puppy or large lesions, then antibiotics are added to the treatment in the form of injections. Since in this case almost any microorganisms can enter the body, they use broad-spectrum agents (Ceftriaxone, Cefotoxime) that have an effect on both gram-positive and gram-negative flora.
- In complicated pneumonia, a course of penicillins - Amoxicillin, Cefazolin, or fluoroquinolones - Ofloxacin, Ciprovet is often prescribed.
- To combat otitis media, drops are prescribed with the antibiotic included in the composition, intended for the treatment of domestic animals - Otibiovin, Otovedin, Surolan. If the disease is severe, additional special antibiotics are used in tablets or injections, for example, the drug Sinulox or Noroclav, which include amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. They can be replaced by such means as Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav.
- Cystitis in pets is quite complicated and requires the use of antibiotics. In this case, the drug with a urological effect from the group of fourth-generation cephalosporins, Cabactan, has proven itself well. With this disease, fluoroquinolones antibiotics can be used, but they will only have a bacteriostatic effect.
- Generation III and IV fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins are prescribed for mastitis or postpartum endometritis in females, inflammatory processes in the paraanal glands. In this case, it is more effective to inject the drug.
- Often dogs suffer from eye diseases - purulent conjunctivitis , blepharitis, keratitis , keratoconjunctivitis. From these ailments, special drops for dogs Tsiprovet, Tsifran, Tsifrolon containing an antibiotic well help.
- One of the most common terrible dog ailments is the plague , it is useless to treat with antibiotics, since it has a viral origin.
If tablets are prescribed for the pet, they are given in whole or in crushed form. It is not recommended to mix them with food, as the effectiveness of the drug is reduced.
Which antibiotic, and in which case to take, can only be decided by a veterinarian. Self-administration and antibiotic treatment of a pet is fraught with dire consequences, up to death.