English mastiff is a dog that involuntarily evokes a deep sense of respect. This large, powerful animal, which has deep historical roots and a multiple degeneration. How did the fighter with the gladiators become a pet dog, a pet for the family and a defender of the weak?
- Исторические корни породы 1. Historical roots of the breed
- Как выглядит породистый мастифф 2. What does a thoroughbred mastiff look like?
- Какой характер у английского мастиффа 3. What is the nature of the English mastiff
- Как ухаживать и содержать питомца-мастифа 4. How to care for and keep a pet mastiff
- Фото английского мастифа 5. Photos of the English Mastiff
- Видео о мастифе 6. Video about mastiff
- Цена английского мастифа 7. The price of an English mastiff
Historical roots of the breed
English, or unofficially Old English, Mastiff - comes from England, is the largest European dane and the largest representative of mastiffs.
Its origin is so deep that scientists are still wondering where the name of the breed came from. According to one version, this is a somewhat distorted interpretation of the word combination, which in translation means "lord of thieves". He is associated with a long-standing order, when these dogs were put on the chain during the day so that at night they would show more ferocity.
Another option - the mastiff comes from the word masty, which means "stylish", "quality". This concept most accurately reflects the essence of these animals. These are not all interpretations, but the most common ones.
A lot of questions remain about the origin of these dogs, but most likely that their ancestors are the Tibetan mastiff , originally inhabited in the mountains, and then spread to all the most ancient states - Assyria, Egypt, Persia, etc.
Archaeological excavations confirmed that such mastiff dogs existed in the 6th century BC. The same animals, dressed in armor, used in the battles of the great commander Alexander of Macedon. On the territory of England the dogs came through the Celts, who moved here from Asia in the 3-4 centuries BC.
There is a mention of Caesar about the giant Britons who participated with their owners in battles with Roman legionaries. The Romans christened the dogs with mastiffs and began to let them out into the arena to the gladiators.
In the beginning of the 5th century, German tribes invaded England with their war dogs. For the most part, the natural assimilation of two species of animals led to the formation of a new type of dog - with a dark color and a fierce character.
By the 11th century the mastiffs had changed their appearance a little and, after leaving the fighting, they began to be used in military affairs, for hunting large game and as overseers for slaves. Mastiffs at that time were very appreciated, because one such dog could replace two dozen hounds and greyhounds. It was this cost that these dogs had. Naturally, mastiffs became available only to privileged classes, since their price was high enough, in addition, their content was taxed.
In the 60s of the 11th century Normans attacked the UK, they imported into the country Alans - hunting mastiff from Europe. Again, there was a mixture of blood, resulting in several types of mastiff. In the early 15th century, the Duke of York left a record in which the mastiffs appeared as watchdogs.
What does a thoroughbred mastiff look like?
If you look at the exterior, then modern mastiffs are large, powerful, heavy animals, with strong bones. From them, and blows force. The skin has a high elasticity, tightly adheres to the body. In the area of the head, with great excitement, the skin can form folds.
According to the requirements of the standard, mastiff dogs should have an average height of 76 cm, females - about 70 cm, the weight of animals can vary from 80 to 86 kg.
The coat of mastiffs is dense, hard, hairs short, but the undercoat is also thick, but softer. Color of the coat should be with the obligatory presence of pale yellow - silver, dark tiger, apricot.
A common standard describes a thoroughbred pet as follows:
- The head of the mastiffs is large, in the form of a square, with pronounced muscles in the temporal part, and also in the region of the cheeks and crown. Cheeks expressed, but not protruding. When the pet is in a concentrated state, the skin on the forehead is wrinkled, and the skin folds seem to hang over the eyebrows, this makes the pet look harsh.
- The tip of the nose of the mastiffs is large, slightly flattened, black in color.
- Dogs of this breed have strong jaws , fleshy, thick, lips with a black edging.
- Ears have a wide and high fit, and are in a hanging position. They are thin enough, have a black or dark color, medium length, the tips are rounded.
- The eyes are round, with a dark iris, widely set. The mastiff's eyes are serious, attentive.
- The teeth are round, bright white, the incisors of the lower jaw have a linear arrangement. The bite can be in the form of scissors, or straight. The standards allow the arrangement of the lower incisors in a checkerboard pattern.
- The neck of the dog is strong, short, has well-defined muscles and tightly fitting skin. In the area of the throat, the skin forms two folds.
- The back of the English mastiff, loins and croups, broad, strong, with developed musculature.
- The tail is crescent-shaped, with a high fit, is lowered downwards, during the movement it rises.
- The thorax is massive, of decent width and depth, the ribs are convex, round in shape. The abdomen is pulled up, the groin folds are selected.
- The front paws have a wide and direct setting, strong bones and relief muscles. The hind legs are perfectly developed, with a massive shank, slightly shortened and backward. The pads of the paws are impressive, rounded, collected in a lump. The claws of the mastiffs are black.
Dogs move freely, without fuss. A characteristic course is the lynx, which during acceleration goes into a gallop.
To the defects of the rock are the following states:
- Odnoyaytsevost (cryptorchidism).
- Color, not included in the standard list.
- Aggressive behavior towards people.
- Absence of dark pigment on the nose, eyelids, lips.
- Absence of a mask on the face.
- Standing ears.
- Eyes of different colors, as well as blue.
- Incorrect bite - if the tongue or teeth are visible from the closed mouth.
- One-sided rearrangement of the feet during walking (amble).
- Males are below 74 cm at the withers, for females the lower border is 68 cm.
What is the nature of the English mastiff
Naturally, each dog has its own unique character, however, there are common features that apply, if not to all the pets of this breed, to most of them.
Considering the mastiffs at the dawn of the birth of the breed, it can be guessed that these were ferocious dogs, distinguished by an evil temper. Such dogs ruthlessly tore to pieces of gladiators, fearlessly fought with the largest predators.
But the long years of evolution completely changed the evil temper of dogs of this breed. If the size of the mastiffs became even larger and larger, the emotional state became, on the contrary, more stable and calm. The work of breeders was crowned with success and today the English mastiff is an excellent domestic pet.
As soon as the dog got rid of the hot norova, she became noticeably calmer and more reserved. Her patience can be envied by many, because mastiff is an example of calm and confidence. To the dog succumbed to panic, you need to try very, very much. These dogs do not have the habit of barking for no reason, they do not show a violent joy, jumping on newcomers.
Despite the formidable appearance and apparent independence, it is almost impossible for such a dog to survive on the street. Over the long years of home life, mastiffs have become accustomed to the comfort and warmth of human habitation and have adapted to living together with a person. They are not inclined to squabbles and disputes, and if they do not like something, then pets prefer to retire proudly.
English mastiffs have not lost their courage with time. They are able to protect themselves and their masters. But for this there must be good reasons. These pets like to be in a calm state, lie down, sleep. Their movements are slow, but this does not prevent them from showing activity.
The dog knows the boundaries of its territory and everything always keeps under control, even during sleep. Even just waking up, he can quickly assess the situation and react properly.
In many respects the behavior of the animal depends on its timely socialization. If being a puppy, he successfully passed socialization, then in the adult state it is not just a pet, but a full member of the family, loving kindness and affection.
He can sacrifice himself for the sake of any member of the family, besides, he will be just happy to accompany owners on trips or on vacation. To stay the same mastiff really does not like very much.
English mastiff can act as a caring nanny, but still it is not recommended to let him in to the babies. This does not apply to possible aggression, but is associated only with the large size of the pet. Playing with such a volume friend for the baby may not be so good.
This huge dog likes to play with older children, showing amazing caution. At the same time if you play catch-up, then there is no chance to escape from the mastiff. Despite the awkwardness, these dogs can develop an unprecedented speed.
Under the protection and care of the dog also fall and all other pets living in the house. Even cats, and especially kittens, will be protected with the same zeal as the owners themselves. Only the other male can summon the male mastiff conflict, in this case the natural instinct of domination is manifested.
On the ground they behave calmly, and even without a leash, they will walk nobly alongside. During a walk in the street, this pet will show all his restraint and not rvanet behind the street animal, whether it be a dog or a cat.
Why these big dogs are not adapted is a sport, doing something quickly and very quickly for phlegmatic mastiffs is unnatural. Mastiffs are great for apartment maintenance and even like this comfort.
How to care for and keep a pet mastiff
Because of the short coat, mastiffs can not live on the street, they are recommended to be kept indoors, be it an apartment or your house. This is also necessary to take into account and during walks - in the severe winter you need to take care of special clothes for dogs.
The mastiff must have his own place to sleep and rest. Sofas, beds and other furniture should be taboo from an early age pet.
Such a huge dog needs a special diet enriched with calcium. It is necessary to include in the diet of dairy products. Up to three months it is forbidden to feed the puppy with dry food.
Mastiffs must be vaccinated regularly, and it's time to do it. A dog needs walks, although you can not tell from his bored appearance. Nevertheless, the pet should receive the necessary physical load.
Wool from mastiff does not require special care on the part of the owners, it is usually enough to treat it once a week with a special brush, and only during moulting it is much more often.
Read more about the proper care of dogs .
Photo of the English mastiff
The price of English mastiff
Get into the puppy puppy English mastiff is not difficult - the breed is fairly common, there is a large number of nurseries in the Russian Federation, and also sold by hand. Of course, on the periphery with this there can be certain difficulties, but still they are solvable.
A puppy without a pedigree can be bought for a modest price of 5000-8000 rubles, a dog with a pedigree will cost much more, here the cost starts from 30000.
Puppy from titled parents will cost at least 60,000 rubles and this is only the initial price. What a puppy to buy, and how much to pay for it, the owner decides. The price is not so important, it is important that you acquire a sincere and faithful friend.