Allergies in dogs are a common disease that causes the same discomfort to dogs as to humans. And today dogs are increasingly suffering from this ailment. In some breeds there is a tendency to allergic manifestations, others have a failure in the activity of the immune system. Naturally, the symptoms cause inconvenience to the pet, in addition, it can provoke complications, so it is important to understand the problem in time by revealing the allergen.
Causes of allergy in dogs
The organism of a dog, as however, and a person, when any allergen gets into it, forms an immune response, which is a protection against harmful effects of pathogenic substances.
Of course, not every organism reacts to the same component equally, and if there are signs of an allergy in the dog, then the pet has an increased sensitivity. But why it is formed in dogs, scientists still do not know the exact cause. But among the possible provoking factors, most veterinarians identify the following:
- Predisposition, inherited. Among dog breeds most often this disease suffer dachshunds, shar-pei, bulldogs, labradors.
- Anatomical features in the structure of the organs of the nervous and endocrine system of certain breeds.
- Prolonged finding of a dog in stressful situations.
- Untreated worms .
- Infectious diseases, both acute and chronic.
Once the allergen enters the body, the immune system starts producing specific antibodies that are able to react only to a specific type of antigens.
If there is a regular penetration of antigens into the systems and organs of the dog, then the activated antibodies combine into immune complexes. They are fixed in cells containing substances, which are responsible for inflammatory processes during allergic manifestations - histamine and others.
Activating, mediators provoke the release of these components into the bloodstream, which carries them throughout the body to various organs, tissues, and skin. Where they penetrated, inflammation develops there, manifested in the form of puffiness, redness, skin rashes, intestinal spasms and bronchopulmonary musculature. Immune complexes often damage the circulatory system of the animal.
Some allergens have the property of changing their own structure, then the immune system perceives them as anomalous components, which provokes the production of white blood cells and lymphocytes. This process is peculiar to the body during the development of a skin disease such as psoriasis.
Dogs distinguish several types of allergies, and each has its own characteristics.
It will be interesting to learn about allergies to dogs .
The dog's allergy to fleas
Sufficient common type of allergies in pets, which, in fact, is the reaction of the animal's body to the allergens contained in the saliva of parasites. Among the main symptoms of this disease can be noted the following:
- irritation of the skin;
- itching - the dog is restless, bites the hair in the lesions, often itches and itches for a long time.
With this type of pathology, not necessarily the presence of many insects, already one or two parasites cause the animal discomfort, provoking a severe allergy. In addition, the symptoms of the disease can persist for a long time, even when the fleas were killed.
Treatment of this type of allergy, above all, includes the removal of harmful parasites. To ease the condition of your four-legged friend during illness or to help her avoid, you can apply several manipulations:
- Daily comb out the fur coat of the pet, it is especially important to do this during the maximum spread of parasites. Carrying out such manipulations will be an excellent way of cleaning the dog's fur from dirt and dust, and from the products of the life of fleas.
- In the presence of fleas, you need to bathe the dog more often, first using special shampoos to destroy pests. Then, without detergents, to eliminate itching and skin irritation. In addition, a clean animal is unattractive to fleas.
The treatment and prevention of flea allergy is also the removal of parasites from the home of the dog - booths and cages need to be treated with special means. If the pet lives in an apartment, then all the places where the animal lives are treated.
To prevent the dog from "grabbing" fleas, it is recommended to wear a special anti-flea collar or use drops from fleas and ticks. When severe allergic symptoms are recommended to seek help from a veterinarian.
More information on flea allergies .
Nutritional type of allergy
Allergy to food is a kind of response of the immunological system to the protein obtained with food. The protein is contained in almost all foods that are part of the animal's ration - meat, fish, offal, porridge and vegetables, and any of them can serve as a catalyst for the development of allergic manifestations.
Today, this form of allergy has become not uncommon, it can occur in dogs at various ages, and any food component can provoke a reaction. Among the most allergenic products are the following:
- bird - chicken or turkey;
- pork and beef;
- chicken protein;
In most cases, food allergy manifests itself as a digestive system disorder - diarrhea and vomiting , but there are also other symptoms:
- Itching and hyperemia of the skin - the dog often scratches the ears (read about otodectosis ), licking, gnawing the body in the affected areas, rubs against walls and furniture, trying to get rid of itching sensations.
- There are inflammatory foci, on which the hair falls . Formed bald patches without proper treatment are increasing.
- On the skin there is a rash, small wounds or seals in the form of cones.
- The dogs blush, the mucous eye becomes inflamed, the lachrymation increases, and a cloudy mucus accumulates in the corners of the eyes.
- Pet often sneezes, has a cough , often there is a current from the nose.
- Perhaps shortness of breath with wheezing is an asthmatic manifestation of allergy.
- Wetting underarms is another sign of food allergy. In the case of the appearance of wet spots on the dog bedding , it is worthwhile to prick up, since this does not mean that the dog sweats, such a physiological phenomenon in dogs does not. This is a sure sign of a wet eczema, often accompanying an allergy to food.
- Inflammation of the ears - perhaps, the appearance of exudate, the dog begins to shake the ears.
If you suspect a food allergy, in order to identify and eliminate the allergen, you need to do the following:
- If the dog regularly feeds on one type of food, then, most likely, it is in it. In this case, you need to replace the power supply with another one. If this did not help, then option one - you must visit a veterinarian.
- With a variety of nutrition is unlikely to be able to independently identify the product containing the allergen. In such a situation it is better to trust a specialist - he will develop a special diet based on the gradual inclusion in the diet of new products. This method will identify food that causes an allergic reaction in the pet.
In addition to changing food or introducing a diet, a veterinarian can prescribe special drugs that accelerate the withdrawal of the allergen from the body, as well as supplements that strengthen immunity.
At home, you can make the pet a cleansing enema and give the absorbent - activated carbon, Smektu, Enterosgel. If the disease is accompanied by symptoms that threaten the life of a pet, they are removed by administering drugs drip and in the form of injections.
Producers of animal feed consider the increase in the number of dogs suffering from this ailment, therefore they produce special low allergenic feeds.
With a genetic predisposition to allergies, the pet will need regular treatment, in this case, the disease becomes chronic. Pet owners should receive advice on the care of a particular dog.
Experts give several recommendations to reduce the risks of allergies in dogs for food:
- It is worth observing the condition of the mucous membranes of the animal, especially in young individuals and puppies. To ensure that the surfaces are healthy, you need to provide the dog with adequate nutrition and regular medical examination.
- If possible, do not allow the pet development of gastroenteritis. Some veterinarians believe that dogs who have been ill with this disease have a tendency to develop a food allergy.
- Many dogs have a habit of picking up all kinds of garbage during walks, it is the owner's responsibility to prevent such a phenomenon, because this can be the reason not only food allergies, but also poisoning.
Ecological allergy in dogs
The environment often causes allergies, both in humans and in dogs. Flower pollen, mold fungus, dust mite, fibers of natural tissues, and much more can provoke this condition at any time. If the allergen is constantly present in the house, then the pet will have to suffer from the symptoms of the disease regularly. In other cases it is a question of seasonality of displays of an illness.
There are two types of environmental allergy:
- Atopy - a genetic predisposition to allergies to external stimuli is the most common type of disease. Its main manifestation is seasonal atopic dermatitis . It is found in the form of dandruff and dry skin.
- Contact allergy - the reaction occurs when the pet comes into contact with the object containing the allergen. Most often the contact surfaces are gastric mucosa, limbs and muzzle.
Treatment of such an allergy, first of all, requires the identification of an allergenic agent and its elimination. Prolonged exposure to stimuli on the dog's body will increase its sensitivity and response.
It is necessary to observe a number of rules if a pet has a pet in the house with a tendency to allergies:
- The room requires regular airing, it is necessary to protect the pet from tobacco smoke, contact with detergents and cleaning agents.
- When pollen allergies during the active flowering of plants, if possible, avoid street walking (if the dog is small) or choose the area with the least amount of vegetation.
- The dog must be provided with clean drinking water that does not contain harmful impurities.
- Vaccinations and medicines should be taken by the dog only if necessary, since vaccines and antibiotics , adversely affecting the intestinal flora, create excellent conditions for the exposure of allergens.
- After a walk it is necessary to wash the paws of a dog, since this is how allergens get into the house, the same applies to shoes.
The appearance of skin irritations, rashes, bald spots can be symptoms of various infections, so it is important to conduct a diagnostic differentiation of the disease. Naturally, knowing about the peculiarities of a four-legged friend, it is necessary, if possible, to protect him from possible allergens.