A general inflammatory disease of the skin that is accompanied by the appearance of acne or acne is called acne (acne vulgaris). In the writings of Aristotle and Hippocrates there are descriptions of pathology that do not cause doubts that these great healers of antiquity described acne. In dogs, as well as in humans, there are pimples. Especially susceptible to this disease are short-haired breeds - boxers, Dobermans, shar pei, pugs and bulldogs.
Causes of pathology development
Despite the centuries-old history of the study of the disease, the causes of the appearance of acne so far to the end have not been clarified. Acne is the most common recurrent, inflammatory disease of the sebaceous follicular apparatus. Because of the hyperfunction of the sebaceous glands, there is a blockage of their stomata, inflammation and, with the addition of a secondary infection, suppuration. In dogs, acne is localized on the muzzle, less often in the root of the tail, anal sphincter, trunk. The causes of acne are:
- hormonal imbalance;
- polygenic inheritance;
- ultraviolet radiation;
The hormonal theory of the appearance of acne confirms the frequency of occurrence of the disease. Acne is more often noted in puppies and young dogs. During the growth period, the level of active testosterone increases, which stimulates the proliferation of keratinocytes (epidermal cells) and the production of a special secret.
When their outflow is disturbed, the skin glands are clogged and a cork is formed, consisting of skin cells that have slipped, skin sebum and microorganisms. As a result, the inflammatory process develops. In the place of blockage there is a swelling, a dense red tubercle, which gradually transforms into an abscess.
The appearance of acne is also affected by the level of linoleic acid. At a very low level of acid, the process of skin epithelium is activated and the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines is activated. Congenital hypersensitivity of the sebaceous gland receptors to androgens promotes the appearance of acne.
In the channels of the sebaceous glands and on the surface of the skin is the bacterium Propionibacterium acne, which, with a decrease in immunity, begins to multiply rapidly, causing inflammation of the sebaceous glands. The bacterium synthesizes lipase, hyaluronidase, proteases and stimulates the activity of cytokines. Staphylococci also participate in the inflammatory process. In addition, in the sebaceous glands, in response to stress, the neuroendocrine function is activated, which contributes to the appearance of acne. It is established that acne also occurs against the background of inflammatory processes caused by trauma.
Classification and symptoms of the disease
There are many varieties of acne classifications that facilitate the work of the doctor in establishing the diagnosis and the appointment of treatment. For example, the following forms of acne are distinguished:
- non-inflammatory (comedonal acne) - these include micro-comedones, open comedones or blackheads, closed or whiteheads with minor inflammation. These forms are associated with occlusion of sebaceous glands and appear in dogs only on smooth skin in the region of the lips, anal opening;
- inflammatory acne, which are characterized by the appearance of pustules, papules, nodes and a pronounced inflammatory process. They occur when another type of sebaceous glands located at the base of the fuzzy and bristly hair is affected, so they can be localized on the muzzle, lower jaw, at the base of the tail and on the dog's trunk;
- severe forms of acne are manifested in the form of draining, heaped, spherical formations, nodular-cystic and phlegmatic acne. After their scarring, there are scars, thickened skin, areas of hyperpigmentation.
In addition to inflammation and suppuration, the appearance of acne in dogs can be accompanied by itching and pain. External manifestations and symptoms of acne are similar to a number of skin pathologies - demodicosis, contact allergy, inflammation around a foreign object, bacterial infection. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct differential diagnostics in order to exclude similar pathologies. To do this, the dog takes a scraping of the skin and conducts microscopy of the sample and bakpos.
Acne Therapy in Dogs
At home, it is quite possible to cope with the treatment yourself. Often enough bathing pet with a special anti-seborrheic shampoo, for example "Doctor", which includes benzoyl peroxide - antimycotic and antibacterial agent. Also very popular are shampoos with chlorhexidine - Healing, Pchelodar, Doktor VIC, Davis, Dr Seidel. They not only eliminate the itching and relieve inflammation, but also contribute to the fastest healing of the wounds on the skin.
For external use, ointments with mupirocin are used - Bactroban, Supirocin, Fucidine, Fusiderm. Introduction to food L-threonine or use of ready-made diet food for dogs Hills Canine ld Hepatic Health will help reduce the severity of follicular keratosis. For the same purpose, you can use Retin-A cream, which is indicated for the therapy of acne, follicular keratosis, flat warts. If the inflammation can not be removed, then corticosteroids are prescribed.
Antibiotic therapy is prescribed for deep skin lesions. Most often for systemic therapy, drugs from the group of cephalosporins are used. With a timely begun treatment, the prognosis is favorable.