A common inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by acne or blackheads is called acne (acne vulgaris). In the writings of Aristotle and Hippocrates there are descriptions of pathology, which are beyond doubt that these great healers of antiquity described acne. Dogs, like people, have acne. Shorthair breeds - boxers, Dobermans, Shar Pei, pugs and bulldogs are especially susceptible to this disease.
Causes of pathology
Despite the long history of studying the disease, the causes of acne are still not fully understood. Acne is the most common recurrent, inflammatory disease of the tidal-follicular apparatus. Due to the hyperfunction of the sebaceous glands, the stomata become blocked, inflammation occurs and, upon the accession of a secondary infection, suppuration. In dogs, acne is localized on the face, less often in the area of the root of the tail, anal sphincter, and body. Causes of acne are:
- hormonal imbalance;
- polygenic inheritance;
- ultraviolet radiation;
Hormonal theory of acne confirms the frequency of occurrence of the disease. Acne is more common in puppies and young dogs. During the growth period, the level of active testosterone increases, which stimulates the proliferation of keratinocytes (epidermis cells) and the production of a special secret.
In case of violation of their outflow, the glands of the skin become blocked and a plug is formed, consisting of exfoliated skin cells, sebum and microorganisms. As a result, an inflammatory process develops. At the site of blockage, a swelling occurs, a dense red bump, which gradually transforms into an abscess.
The appearance of acne is also affected by the level of linoleic acid. With a very low level of acid, the process of exfoliating the epithelium of the skin is activated and the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines is activated. Congenital hypersensitivity of receptors of the sebaceous glands to androgens contributes to the appearance of acne.
In the ducts of the sebaceous glands and on the surface of the skin is the bacterium Propionibacterium acne, which, with a decrease in immunity, begins to multiply rapidly, causing inflammation of the sebaceous glands. The bacterium synthesizes lipase, hyaluronidase, protease and stimulates the activity of cytokines. Staphylococcus also participates in the inflammatory process. In addition, the neuroendocrine function is activated in the sebaceous glands, in response to stress, to promote the appearance of acne. It is established that acne also occurs on the background of inflammatory processes caused by injuries.
Classification and symptoms of the disease
There are many varieties of acne classifications that facilitate the work of a doctor in making a diagnosis and prescribing treatment. For example, the following forms of acne are distinguished:
- non-inflammatory (comedonal acne) - these include microcomedo, open comedones or blackheads, closed or whiteheads with slight inflammation. These forms are associated with blockage of the sebaceous glands and occur in dogs only on smooth skin in the area of the lips, anus;
- inflammatory acne, which are characterized by the appearance of pustules, papules, nodes, and a pronounced inflammatory process. They occur with the defeat of another type of sebaceous glands, located at the base of the fluffy and bristly hair, so they can be localized on the face, lower jaw, at the base of the tail and on the dog's torso;
- severe forms of acne are manifested in the form of confluent, heaped, spherical formations, nodular cystic and reflux acne. After their scarring, scars, thickened skin, and hyperpigmentation areas remain.
In addition to inflammation and suppuration, the appearance of acne in dogs can be accompanied by itching and pain. The appearance and symptoms of acne are similar to a number of skin pathologies - demodicosis, contact allergies, inflammation around a foreign object, and bacterial infection. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a differential diagnosis in order to exclude similar pathologies. To do this, the dog takes a scraping of the skin and carry out microscopy of the sample and bakposev.
Acne therapy in dogs
At home, it is quite possible to cope with the treatment yourself. Often enough bathing pet with a special anti-seboric shampoo, for example, "Doctor", which includes benzoyl peroxide - an antimycotic and antibacterial agent. Also very popular are chlorhexidine shampoo - Medical, Pchelodar, Doktor VIC, Davis, Dr Seidel. They not only eliminate the itching and relieve inflammation, but also contribute to the rapid healing of wounds on the skin.
For external exposure apply ointment with mupirocin - Baktroban, Supirotsin, Futsidin, Fuziderm. Hills Canine ld Hepatic Health's introduction of L-threonine to food or the use of ready-made dietary dog food will help reduce the severity of follicular keratosis. For the same purpose, you can use the cream Retin-A, which is indicated for the treatment of acne, follicular keratosis, flat warts. If the inflammation can not be removed, then corticosteroids are prescribed.
Antibiotic therapy is prescribed for deep skin lesions. Most often, drugs from the group of cephalosporins are used for systemic therapy. With timely treatment started, the prognosis is favorable.